Chapter 19 – Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County VA (draft)

Thomas Mitchell of Charles County

A Thomas Mitchell was first recorded in Bedford County VA in a road order dated Nov1766.  This Thomas Mitchell is purported by Richard Kozney and Sherrie Mitchell Boone to have originated from Charles County MD, son of Ignatius Mitchell.  The prospect of this purported identity being correct is supported by the fact that this Thomas Mitchell named his only known son “Ignatius”.  The given name of Ignatius is so unique within the Mitchell family of Maryland, it seems a virtual certainty that Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County VA did hold a kinship connection to the Charles County MD Mitchells, but the questions remains open as to the nature of that kinship.

Richard Kozney is identified as the owner of several profile pages on Wikitree, including the profile page of Ignatius Mitchell (b. ~1690, d. aft 1732).   This Ignatius Mitchell is purported by Kozney to have been the father of Thomas Mitchell (b. ~1719, d. ~1775) of Bedford County.  In fact, Kozney identifies this Ignatius Mitchell as having married Margaret Wheeler, and having had issue as follows:

1.         Ignatius Mitchell, 

2.         Catherine Mitchell,

3.         Thomas Mitchell,

4.         Elizabeth Mitchell,

5.         Watley Mitchell,

6.         William Mitchell and

7.         Leonard Francis Mitchell

Kozney offers absolutely no documentation supporting the persons named in this profile page for Ignatius Mitchell, but does offer the following gift deed from Thomas Wheeler to his grandsons: Ignatius and Thomas Mitchell, abstracted as follows:

1.         29Jul1734:  Thomas Wheeler, of Charles County, to my grandsons, Ignatius and Thomas Mitchell, Jr., sons of Thomas Mitchell, of this county, all that part or parcel of land which I am possessed of with all appurtenances and tenements thereunto belonging.  Witness: Joshua Alford, Joseph Mitchell and Martha Wheeler.  (D.B. O, No. 2, Folio 48)  NOTE:  This deed may have been a conveyance to

From the foregoing gift deed it seems probable that a daughter of Thomas Wheeler had married a Thomas Mitchell.  Further, it might be inferred that Thomas Mitchell and his Wheeler wife had sons named Ignatius and Thomas Mitchell.  Our challenge is to sort out the identity of this Thomas Mitchell [Sr.] and his sons: Thomas [Jr.] and Ignatius Mitchell, as contrasted to Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County.  It may be that the witnesses: Joseph Mitchell and Martha Wheeler may provide clues for sorting out this mystery.  Since it was Thomas Wheeler, who first introduces us to Thomas Mitchell of Charles County, we may be well served in learning more about Thomas Wheeler and his family origins.  The history of the Wheeler family of Maryland will be explored later in this work.  However, the launch point of our search for the origins of Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County will commence with the earliest known Thomas Mitchell in Maryland.  The records and analysis of this earlier Thomas Mitchell are presented as follows:

1.         2Jan1646/7:  Sworn to the Oath of ffealty the following persons: Mr Lewger, Mr Gerrard, Mr Green, Francis Gray, John Hampton, John Hatch, Francis Pope, Wm Tompson, Mr Bretton, Nath: Pope, Thomas Sturman, John Hollis, Walter Beane, John Nevill, Wm Wright, John Norman, Rowland Maze, John Thompson, Robert Edwards, Walter Broadhurst, James Walker, John Hilliard, Henry Spink, Wm Perfaite, ffrancis Sherwood, John Gore, Nath Jones, Wm Rrough, Thomas Thomas, Walter Pakes, John Jarbo, Mr Wm Eltonhead, John Mansell, ffra: Posey, Jno Wheatley, Wm Hungerford, Stephen Salmon, Thomas Petite, Tho Mitchell.  [Liber B., p. 205]  This was the first record found in Maryland for anyone named Thomas Mitchell.  There is good reason to believe that this Thomas Mitchell was the same person named in the following records associated with the Wicomino River region of Charles County.  Although he did not claim any land rights until Oct1650, it is apparent from this record that he had arrived in the Province sometime before Jan1646/7

2.         25Aug1649:  1642-1753 Rent Rolls Charles County, Maryland Hundred – Wicomico: Rent Roll page/Sequence: 286-22: SLINGSBY: 100 acres; Possession of – 100 Acres – Newman, George: Surveyed 25 Aug 1649 for Thomas Mitchell lying near Neale’s Creek: Other Tracts Mentioned: PARTNERS PURCHASE; other notes – Resurveyed into PARTNERS PURCHASE,

3.         29 Sept. 1649:  A true and pfect Inventory of the Estate of John Tompson deceased taken and appraised by James Hare and Thomas Mitchell vppon theire oathes in that behalf taken about the middle of June last before Mr Wifim Bretton  Comissioner authorized for that purpose… 

4.         1Oct1650:  Thomas Mitchell demandeth 300 acres of land for transporting himself, his wife, and two children into the Province in the year 1648.  Warrant issued to lay out 300 acres of land upon Potomeck River or some branch or creek thereof not formerly taken up or reserved by the Governor for any others. (Liber A,B & H, Folio 48)  From this record it would appear that Thomas Mitchell had paid for the transport of himself, his wife, and two children into the Province, and that that transport may have occurred sometime in 1648, even though it would appear from the previous record that Thomas Mitchell, himself had been in the Province at least two years earlier.  Based on headrights, Thomas Mitchell claimed 300 acres situated at some location along the Potomac River drainage.

5.         In 1651 he [John Neville] demanded 400 acres of land which had been assigned to him by George Ackrick, and one hundred acres for transporting Johanna Porter, his now wife, and on August 1, 1651, “A warrant was issued to lay out for John Neville Five Hundred acres upon Wiccokomico river (now Wicomico) in Charles county, joining the lands of Thomas Mitchell then to the southward of the Patuxent river not formerly taken up & etc.” (See Liber A, B and H, folio 241, land office, of Maryland).  It should be noted that John Neville was among those persons swearing an oath of fealty in Jan1646/7, along with Thomas Mitchell etal.  John Neville claimed 400 acres based on assignment from George Ackrick, and for the transport of his then wife, Johanna Porter.  A warrant was issued to John Neville for 500 acres situated on the Wicomico River, adjoining the land of Thomas Mitchell.  So, from this record it would appear that Thomas Mitchell had been granted land (probably 300 acres) based on his claim dated 1Oct1650, and that Neville’s grant abutted Mitchell’s grant along the drains of the Wicomico River in Charles County.

6.         August 1, 1651, “A warrant was issued to lay out for John Neville Five Hundred acres upon Wiccokomico river (now Wicomico) in Charles county, joining the lands of Thomas Mitchell then to the southward of the Paturent river not formerly taken up & etc.” (See Liber A, B and H, folio 241, land office, of Maryland)  Ditto.

7.         30Apr1656:  This Indenture made the thirtieth day of Aprill   Betweene James Walker of Wicocomoco & Christopher Carnall of Wicocomoco aforesd in ye Prouince of Maryland Plantrs. Wittnesseth That the sayd James Walker hath for a ualuable Consideraön bargayned & sold, & by these prsents doth bargaine & sell unto ye sd Christopher Carnall One parcell of Land scituate, lying & being on ye Prouince of Maryland. Bounded att a marked Oake att ye side of a Runne, & soe uppon a streight line to ye Land of Thomas Mitchell up ye Hills to another marked Tree opposite to ye first. Cont. by Estimãon Two hund Acres bee it more or lesse…  This record gives further credence to the belief that Thomas Mitchell had been granted a tract of land on the Wicomico River.

8.         22Sep1657:  Whereas it appeareth to this Court that John Lewger Standeth indebted unto Thomas Mitchell  the Sume of two hundred pounds of Tobacco as by Bill  appeareth, And Walter Hall Attorney of the Said Lewger  Confessing a Judgment upon the Said Debt, The Court doth  order that the Said Lewger Shall Satisfie the Said debt with  Cost of Suit or Else Execution.  John Lewger was a near neighbor of John Neville and Thomas Mitchell on the Wicomico River.  Lewger at some point in his early years in the Province served as the Secretary of the Province.  John Lewger was among those persons swearing fealty in Jan1646/7.

•           17 Aug 1658; John Lugar [aka Lewger], late sec’y to the Province, for transporting several persons, due land which was granted to James Walker, assignee of John Lugar, son of John Lugar; a parcel of land on the west side of Wicomico; called WALKER’S RUNN; containing 200 acres; /s/ Josias Fendall; recorded, Philip Calvert, Sec’y.  This record would seem to substantiate the near proximity between the lands of John Lewger and Thomas Mitchell.  Note Item No. 7, above, in which a James Walker sold a tract to Christopher Carnall, which abutted the land of Thomas Mitchell.  It is probable that James Walker’a land had been situated on Walker’s Run, hence the naming of the stream.

•           Archives of Maryland, Volume 41, Provincial Court Proceedings, 1658. Page 84; John Lewger gentl aged 30 yeares or thereabouts 28 April 1658, Deposed, Sayth That about ffebruary in the yeare 1656, hee this Depont heard Henry ffox demand of Capt Willm Mitchell, the White Howse standing att St Maries, & the sd Mitchell replyed tht the sd ffox had noe Tytle or interest therto: & therf ore bad him beg one out of it, And tht att the same time, hee did see the sd Capt Mitchell, take the sd ffox by the shoulders, & turne him forth of doores, & further sayth not. Jurat, Corae Ed. Scott.  This is a curious record that would seemingly provide an indirect linkage between Thomas Mitchell and Capt. William Mitchell.  It was clearly a very small world during the early colonial period along the Chesapeake.  It would appear from this record that John Lewger was actually present at the White House (Capt. William Mitchell’s primary abode near St. Mary’s Town) when a dispute arose between Capt. William Mitchell and Henry Fox over the rightful ownership of the White House.

9.         19Aug1658:  1642-1753 Rent Rolls Charles County, Maryland Hundred – Wicomico: Rent Roll page/Sequence: 287-34: MITCHELLS PLATT: 300 acres; Possession of – 300 Acres – Maddox, William: Surveyed 19 Aug 1658 for Thomas Mitchell on the West side of Wicomico River: Other notes – 108 Acres – John Gwinn from William Cage, 5 Dec 1719, 170 Acres – Edward Ford from William Cage, 22 Aug 1726, 58 Acres – John Gwinn from William Cage, 28 April 1727, 40 Acres – Edward Ford from William Cage, 14 Feb 1729.  This rent roll record appears to provide a chain of title for a 300 acre tract originally surveyed for Thomas Mitchell on 19Aug1658 called Mitchell’s Platt.  Following its original patent to Thomas Mitchell, there are an apparent four separate conveyances from William Cage to John Gwinn, Edward Ford, John Gwinn, and Edward Ford which total 376 acres.  From this information it might be inferred that Thomas Mitchell conveyed his tract to William Cage, and that at some point it may have been resurveyed and found to contain 76 more acres that the original survey.

10.       23Apr1659:  Thomas Mitchell Mariner aged 38 yeares [born ~1621] or thereabouts sworne & examined sayth That about the 29th of March [1659], hee went up Patowmeck Riuer in the Vessell commonly knowne by the name of the May fflowre, (Danil Hutt Master) unto an Indian Towne, where they tooke in Corne, but the quantity he knoweth not, ffurther he p. 251 sayth tht the sd Corne was purchased wth wampompeck, or Roanoke. And tht Mr Dodman, & a stranger was wth them, whose name this Depont knoweth not, & further sayth not. Thomas P. Mitchell Jurat Coran Josias ffendall. his marke.  There appears to have been only one person named Thomas Mitchell in the Charles County area of Maryland in the middle of the 17th century.  Ergo, it seems highly probable that this deposition was sworn by that Thomas Mitchell.  From this deposition we learn several “facts” about Mr. Mitchell: (1) he was about 38 years old in 1659, therefore born about 1620-1, (2) he described himself as a Mariner, suggesting that his primary occupation was involved with shipping, probably along the waters of the Chesapeake Bay, and (3) that he appears to have hired out his services to Daniel Hutt, who resided at Nominy, Westmoreland County VA.

11.       25Apr1659:  The aforesd Case & State thereof being signifyed to the Court, a Jury was forthwth Impanelled, Viz. fforeman:  Willm Marshall,, Tho: Baker, Tho: Mitchell, Hen: Moore, Rich: Stanford, George Symonds,, Peter Carre, James Johnson, John Piper, Edm: Lindsey, Robt Robins, Stanop Roberts.  Thomas Mitchell was appointed to serve as a juryman.

12.       3May1959:  Know all men by these presents that I, Thomas Mitchell of the Province of Maryland do hereby make over from me, my heirs or assigns all my right, title and interest of this within mentioned patent unto Humphrey Attwickes [son-in-law of William Smoot] of the said Province, his heirs…  Wit.: Henry More and Thomas Lomax.  Thomas Mitchell disposed of a moiety of land he had acquired from Richard Smoot (herein below).  This land had been in possession of William Smoot, and is believed to have been part of a 400 acre tract patented to William Smoot near the mouth of Charleston Creek [aka Poseys Creek] as shown on Figure 19-21.

And, 8Jan1656: Know all me by these presents that I, Richard Smoote do assign my whole right, title and interest of this patent unto Thomas Mitchell…  Wit.: Humphrey Attwickes and Thomas Lomax.  Thomas Mitchell acquired a moiety of land (probably 200 acres) from Richard Smoot, which had been conveyed to Richard from his father, William Smoot, shipbuilder.

And, 17Mar1662/3:  Court acknowledged by the Joane Michell, the relic of the said Thomas Mitchell. [Liber B, Folio 100]  From this record it can be established that Thomas Mitchell likely had died sometime prior to Mar1662/3.

13.       12May1659:  Thomas Mitchell, mariner, plaintiff, against Daniell Hutt; maketh demand as followeth:  “To the worshipful Commissioners of Charles County, the humble showeth that, whereas your petitioner was hired by Mr. Daniel Hutt to sail and perform the office of seaman in his bark, your petitioner having accordingly served between seven and eight months intil said Mr. Daniel Hutt, by his misdemeanor lost his said bark and now your petitioner demanding wages according to agreement…  Daniel Hutt denied debt, but admitted to court that was contracted by William Brenton of Newport Rhode Island, merchant… [Liber A, Folio 105]  There is no evidence of any other person named Thomas Mitchell living in the vicinity of Charles County during this time period, so it is reasonable to assume that this was in reference to Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen.  If correct, it would appear that Thomas Mitchell supplemented his income as a mariner, probably operating on the waters of the Potomac and Chesapeake.

14.       20Sep1659:   The humble Petn of Robt Cole, Attorney of Teague Corwin Sheweth, That whereas Thomas Mitchell & Willm Smoote stand indebted unto Teage Corwin in the sume of nineteene hundd pownds [1900 lbt] of Tob & Cask, yor Petr in the behalfe of the aforesd Teage Corwin hath demanded paymt of the aforesd Mitchell, but receiued not any, Wch is much to the dammage of the aforesd Teage, by reason of his goeing forth of this Country, & want of the aforesd Tob. The premises Considered yor Petr desyreth tht the aforesd Mitchell & Smoote may be compelled to make pent paymt wth forbearance, & Costs of suite, & yor Petr shall eur pray &c : Vppon the demand & Petn of the plf, for 1900l Tob. & Cask, The deft Thomas Mitchell (to whom tht Debt principally belongeth) in answere sayth, That hee hath allready ouer payd that Debt, as hee can make appeare by Receipts under the plfs owne hand, & other testimonies, & by his owne accompt, And thereuppon produceth One Receipt dat, 29th Decembr (in part of paymt of a Bill of 1900l Tob) Ano 1658 for nine hund. & Twenty pownds of Tob & cask Allso one other Receipt dat 1o June 1658, for Two hundd & Twenty pownds Tob, receiued of Arthure Turner for the defts use. Both wch Re- ceipts are signed wth the pifs marke. And Capt Nicholas Gwyther euidenceth in Court That hee payd one hogshead of Tob. weighing 336l to Thomas Mitchell, & the sd Mitchell payd the same to the plf Teage Corwin, And the defts acct comes to 450l Tob. It being, for his dyett washing & lodging, for three weeks att the defts howse hee being then lycenced to keepe an Ordinary, Soe tht the deft hath ouer payd tht Bill by Twenty six pownds of Tob. The defts Craue a nonsuite wth Charges & Costs of suite. Wch was graunted & soe.  From this record it is suggested that Thomas Mitchell was licensed to operate an Ordinary from his house in 1658/9.

15.       6Oct1659:  The [humble] Petn of Thomas Mitchell Sheweth, That wher[eas there] is a former Order of this worll Board, for the Attatchmt of 1000l Tob, yor Pctr is indebted to the Estate of Capt Willm Mitchell, Deceased, Wch was to be payd uppon the deliuery of an Indenture of yor Pet™ sonne (wch the sd Capt Mitchell had for his security) as by a noate yor Petr hath from under his owne hand, appeares, Now Capt Cornewaleys hauing procured an Order for the attatching this Tob, Yor Petr humbly therefore beseecheth yor worps to Order That hee may haue the sd Indenture (according to Couenl) deliuered, & the Tob shall be ready, Or ells tht yor worps will please to reuerse the former Order for Attatching the Tob. & yor Petr shall as in duty bownd pray &c : Ordered uppon the foresd Petn, That Capt Thomas Cornewalleys Vid. fol. 204 ut Supra or his Attorney, uppon the paymt of One Thowsand pownds of Tob (for wch formerly hee obteyned Judgmt) giue the Petr security for deliuering him an Indenture of the sonne of the sd Petr, wch was bownd ouer to Capt Willm Mitchel for the sd Mitchels security of paying one thowsand pownds of Tob, as the Petr hath declared in his foresd Petn.  This is the only record found by the author which appears to directly connect Thomas Mitchell and Capt. William Mitchell.  From this record we learn that at some point in the past Thomas Mitchell became indebted to Capt. William Mitchell in the sum of 1,000 lbt, for which Thomas Mitchell signed an indenture using his son as collateral.  At the death of Capt. William Mitchell sometime in early 1659, Thomas Mitchell’s debt was still outstanding.  Capt. Cornwallis, also having claims against the estate of Capt. William Mitchell, applied to the Court for assignment of Thomas Mitchell’s note of 1,000 lbt, as partial settlement of his claim on Capt. William Mitchell’s estate.  Thomas Mitchell acknowledged owing the debt, but wanted assurance from Capt. Cornwallis that his son’s indenture would be released upon his (Thomas Mitchell’s) payment to Capt. Cornwallis.  Nothing in the records associated with the indenture between Thomas Mitchell and Capt. William Mitchell identifies any kinship connection between the parties, nor the identity of the indentured son of Thomas Mitchell.  The above abstracted Court record suggests that Thomas Mitchell’s son was actual “bound” by indenture to Capt. William Mitchell.  This suggests that Thomas Mitchell’s son became an indentured servant to Capt. William Mitchell.  Since this indenture was still in force at the time of Capt. William Mitchell’s death, it seems to suggest that Thomas Mitchell’s son may have been in Capt. Mitchell’s custody at that time (Spring 1659).  The following land petition may offer some identity for Thomas Mitchell’s son:

•           20Dec1658 – Northampton County VA: “Certificate granted to Capt. William Mitchell for five hundred acres of land due him for the transportation of ten persons into the County whose names are as followeth:  William Mitchell, Joane his wife, George Mitchell, Margritt Mitchell, Elizabeth Mitchell, Edward Davis, Nicholas Berkeley, Thomas Fowkes, Robert Hill, Joane his wife.”   Capt. William Mitchell was under investigation challenging his right to practice law in Maryland, when in the latter part of 1658 he relocated from St. Mary’s County MD to Northampton County VA.  Upon his arrival in Northampton he filed a petition for land, and was granted the above cited certificate for 500 acres.  This grant was based on his claim for having transported 10 persons, listed as above cited.  It is the author’s interpretation that the persons being claimed as headrights included Capt. William Mitchell (himself), his wife (Joane Toast), George Mitchell, Margritt Mitchell, Elizabeth Mitchell, and five others.  Various Mitchell family researchers, including Moody Miles and Sherrie Mitchell Boone, have interpreted this certificate to suggest that the named William Mitchell as a headright was actually a son of Capt. William Mitchell.  Moreover, they contend that this William Mitchell (purported son of Capt. William Mitchell) was the same person as William Mitchell of South River.  Moreover, they also claim that George, Margritt and Elizabeth Mitchell were also children of Capt. William Mitchell.  The author does not dispute the identification of Margritt and Elizabeth Mitchell as daughters of Capt. William Mitchell.  However, given the foregoing discussion regarding the indentured son of Thomas Mitchell, who was bound to Capt. William Mitchell, it should not be discounted that this George Mitchell may have been the son of Thomas Mitchell.  From the preceding Court record regarding the debt owed by Thopmas Mitchell to the estate of Capt. William Mitchell, deceased, it seems reasonable to assume that Thomas Mitchell’s son was still in the custody of Capt. William Mitchell at the time he relocated to Northampton County.  Regardless, nothing els has been found in the records of Maryland that would identify the children of Thomas Mitchell, although he was allowed headrights for the transport of two children, and it seems reasonable that other children may have been born in Maryland.

16.       1Nov1659:  Teage Corwin dds wart agst Willm Smoote & Thomas Mitchell accoñ Debt.  Some researchers claim that Thomas Mitchell was married to Joan Smoot, daughter of William Smoot.  This identity of Thomas Mitchell’s wife is undocumented.  Ditto.

17.       14Jan1659/0:  Thomas Mitchell demands a warrant against Richard Trew in an action of debt.  Warrant to the Sheriff to arrest, and return… 754 lbt, dicision for plaintiff… [Liber A, Folio 153]  John Lambert sold a tract of land called “Nonesuch” containing 150 acres on Poynton Creek [near Portobacco] to Richard True [aka Trew] on 12Nov1666.  Thomas Mitchell of Portobacco was named co-Executor on the LWT of John Lambert [Jr.] in Jan1693/4.  Richard Bennett Mitchell purchased a tract called “Nonsuch” from Richard Tubman in Mar1770.  These are connections that may have relevance in identifying person(s) named Thomas Mitchell later in this work.

18.       4Sep1660:  Thomas Mitchell Sr. having given unto Elizabeth Atwickes Jr. one cow calf, desires her mark to be recorded, being… [Liber A, Folio 106]

19.       13Jan1660/1:  An execution issued directed to the Sherriffe of Saint Maryes County at the suite of Captaine Thomas Cornwaleys for one Thowsand pounds of Tob of the goods of Captaine William Mitchell at- tached in the hands of Thomas Mitchell as by Judgmt of Court bearing date the first March 1659 apreth.  Ditto.

20.       21Sep1661:  The interesting case of Joan Mitchell (Michael) involving insinuations of witchcraft and a counter suit for defamation, came up in the Charles County Court on November 14. 1659. Thomas Mitchell complained to the court that “Mis Hatche “, unquestionably the wife of John Hatch, one of Governor Fen dali’s Council, had brought abuseful reproaches upon Joan, his wife, in having declared that Goodie Mitchell had bewitched her face so that “ shee endureth abundance of Misery by the soarness of her mouth “, and two depositions were filed attesting to the fact that Mrs. Hatch had spread such evil reports. The matter seems to have been dropped, however, until nearly two years later when at the September 24, 1661, court Joan Mitchell, now a widow, brought suits for defamation against four prominent residents of Charles County, including Francis. Doughtie, the minister, for having “raysed schandalous reports of mee . . . that I salluted a woman at church and her teeth fell a Acking as if shee had been mad “. It was also testified that Mrs. Long, one of the others sued for defamation, had said that “the hene and Chickens that she had of Goodie Mitchell . . . did die in such a strang manner that she thaught sum old witch or other had bewitched them “ (pp. 54-55, 139, 142, 144-145, 155, 156)  These court cases involving Joan Mitchell almost certainly were for the wife of Thomas Mitchell, who arrived in Maryland in 1648 with wife and two children.  From the filing on 24Sep1661 it seems quite certain that Thomas Mitchell had died sometime within the two preceding years.  The fact that the defendant in the case was presumably the wife of John Hatch clearly suggests that Thomas and Joan Mitchell were still residing in the vicinity of Wicomico River.  The story of Thomas Mitchell, as juxtaposed to Capt. William Mitchell is further clouded and confused by the fact that they both appear to have been married to women named “Joane”.

21.       1Oct1662:  Charles County Circuit Court, Liber A; 1 Oct 1662, Page 243.  William Barton, Jr. delivers patent and assigns rights to his brother-in- law Thomas Smoote for the use of William Hungarford, Jr., son to William Hungarford, dec’d: Patent granted to William Smoot by assignment from John Lugar, Jr.; 240 acres lying on the west side of Wicokomeco River at the head of Forked Creek of the Manor of St. Mary’s bounded by Humphery Atwicks and Thomas Mitchell.  As Thomas Mitchell Sr. had been deceased for over a year, this record would appear to imply that his land may have devolved to a son named Thomas Mitchell.

22.       10Apr1662:  Joan Mitchell, Plainiff, vs. Edward Philpot, Defendant:  Mitchell shewth the Court that by arbitration of Mr. William Marshall and Mr. Humphrey Haggate, they to pay 100 lbt plus cost and charges.  Ordered that defendant pay 554 lbt.  The wife of Thomas Mitchell was allowed to collect debt owed her by Edward Philpot.  Nothing was mentioned in this record to suggest the nature of the debt.

23.       28 Jul 1663:  Charles County Circuit Court, Liber B, Page 138.  Joan Michell, Plt.; John Cage, by his atty. Mr.Thomas Notley, Def.; Joane Michell, relict of Thomas Michell demands satisfaction for 1/3 of land sold by her husband without her consent to John Cage where he now lives; defendant alleges there can be no claim of dower; abatement granted defendant.  Apparently Thomas Mitchell, before his decease, had conveyed part of his lands to John Cage, purportedly without his wife’s authorization (relinquishment).

o          17Jul1730:  Charles County Land Records, Liber M#2 Page 228.  At the request of Edward Ford of CC, the following deed was recorded this Jul 17, 1730.  Feb 11, 1729 from William Cage of CC, planter, to Edward Ford of CC, cordwainer, for 1800 lbs of tobacco and for divers other good causes, part of that tract of land formerly laid out for Thomas Mitchell and now in possession of William Cage, lying in CC on the west side of Petemaek Wicccomoco [Wicomico] River, bounded by’the land of sd Edward Ford that he bought of sd Cage, containing about 40 acres. Signed – W Cage. Wit – Barton Warren, Geo: (SC his mark) Scroggen, Jno Briscoe*, Robt Yates*. This deed was acknowledged by William Cage and Margaret, his wife.  This deed filing appears to reference a 40 acre tract, part of the land formerly in possession of Thomas Mitchell.  This land almost certainly was part of the tract patented by Thomas Mitchell known as “Mitchell’s Platt” and situated between Neale’s Back Creek and Charleston Creek at the extreme southern tip of Pickawaxen Hundred.

24.       30 Jul 1663:  Charles County Circuit Court, Liber B, Page 169.  Joane Michell desires this deposition be recorded: The evidence of James Hay testifies that Richard Dod did ask of goodie Michell for his maid servant because his servant had longer to serve than goodie Michels whereupon she said she would not..upon which they agreed and in a firm bargain; the evidence of Elisabeth Dager testifies that goodie Michell about the middle of April sent a man to Richard Dod to ask him to change a maid servant with her whereupon the said Michell came along with Francis Ferenla whereupon the said Richard when he came to goodie Michels went into the field to look on the maid servant and he came in again and said he liked her very well and asked the woman whether she would give him any boot because his maid had longer to serve and the woman told him no if he would change at even hand she would whereupon they made a firm bargain.

25.       13Oct1663:  Widow Mitchell petitioned Court to accept witness testimony concerning a suit involving a maid servant. [Liber B, Folio 85]  Apparently the widow, Joan Mitchell, had sufficient means to own a servant.

26.       10Nov1663:  William Marshall obligeth himself, his heirs or assigns to pay unto the Widow Mitchell, or her heirs or assigns the full and ___ sum of 400 lbt, and hereby confesseth a judgment for the same. [Liber B, Folio 51]  Continuation of Item 14, above.

27.       29Nov1664:  Thomas Mitchell sworn and examined in open court sayeth that he hath lost one sow and one barrow of two years old, apiece…  “Edward Philpot [servant to Capt. William Mitchell and Robert Brooke] swore that Thomas Michell searched Thomas Standbridge’s house and in the loft he found meat cut in pieces among the corn; jury impaneled of Mr. Humphery Warren, foreman; John Cage, Francis Wine, Edward Swan, Richard Dod, John Douglas, Ignatius Causeene, Alexander Smith, John Lambert, Thomas Allonson, Nicholaus Emerson, Robert Robins.”  Since this record occurred almost three years after the presumed death of Thomas Mitchell Sr., it seems probable that this record pertained to his son [let’s say Thomas Mitchell Jr.] 

NOTE:  Jury included Humphrey Warren (foreman), John Cage, Ignatius Causine, etal.  John Cage was the person to whom Thomas Mitchell Sr. had sold his land on Wicomico River, which his relic, Joan Mitchell, later sued for her dower right, contending that her late husband had sold the land without her relinquishment.  Given these jury members, it seems clear that this Thomas Mitchell was living in the vicinity of lower Pickawaxen Hundred, and that he most likely was the son of Thomas Mitchell Sr.  It may also be relevant to this investigation that John Lambert appeared as a juror.  Later in this work it will be shown that Thomas Mitchell of upper Charles County [Portobacco] was named a co-executor along with William Dent in the LWT of a John Lambert in Jan1693/4.  This John Lambert is believed to have been the father of the John Lambert on which Thomas Mitchell and William Dent were named co-Executors.  The John Lambert recorded as a juror in this record is believed to have married Eleanor Neville, daughter of John Neville.  It should be remembered that John Neville received a grant of 500 acres on the waters of Wicomico River abutting the lands of Thomas Mitchell in Aug1651.  Further note that John Lambert was granted two tracts on 29Jul1664 called “Hogg’s Quarter” and “Nonesuch” abutting Poynton Manor on west side of Portobacco Creek in Lambert’s Valley.  A tract called “Nonsuch” was purchased by Richard Bennett Mitchell from Richard Tubman on 17Mar1770.  Ignatius Causine [aka Causeene] is believed to have been the brother-in-law of Maj. John Wheeler.  Robert Robins’ son, Richard Robins, married Lydia Shuttleworth, and Lydia Shuttleworth married 2nd to John Posey Jr.  Charles Allanson, son of Thomas Allanson, is believed to have married a daughter of John Posey Sr. (either Mary Posey or Elizabeth Posey).  Edward Philpot married another daughter of John Posey Sr., Susannah Posey.  And, to confuse matters even further, Jane Posey, another daughter of John Posey, married a gentleman named Edward Cornish.  Now, we have already waxed lyrically about a Jane Cornish, who married Edward Robins as her 1st husband, so we need not belabor the possible kinship connections between these Robins and Cornish spouses of John Posey’s children.  We will leave that to the imagination of the reader.  Connections of allied parties should be weighed in drawing conclusions regarding an individual’s identity.

28.       16Jan1665/6:  This Indenture made the 22th day of Septembr 1665 Betweene Capt Nicholas Gwyther of St Marys County Gent, in the Prouince of Maryland of the One party And George Newman of Charles County in the same Prouince Plantr of the other party Wittnesseth that the said Nycolas Gwyther for & in Consideracon of the quan tity of three thowsand two hundred pnds of Tobacco and Caske in hand paid before the Ensealing and deliuery hereof by the said George Newman whereof & wherewth the said Nic° Gwyther doth acknowl edge himself e sattisfyed Contented & paid and thereof and euery part and parcell thereof, doe acquitt & discharge the said George Newman his heires Executors and Administrators & euery of them by these prsents as allsoe for diuers other good Causes and Consideracons him hereunto mouing, Haue granted bargained & sould Assigned & sett Ouer and Confirmed & by these prsents doe fully Clearely and Ab solutely Grant Bargaine Sell Assigne Sett Ouer and Confirme, unto the said George Newman his heires Executors Administrs and As signes all that parcell of land scituate lying & being in Charles County aforemenconed lying on the north side of Potomacke riuer neer Mr Neales back Creeke and bounding on the south the said riuer and Creeke, on the west a line drawne from a Marsh in the said riuer Called white oke marsh north into the woods for the length of one hundred & twenty perches On the north wth a line drawne East from [p. 120] the end of the former line into the woods for the length of ninety perches on the west with a line drawne south and by west from the end of the former line untill it falls into a branch Called Simkins branch Contayning and now laid out for One hundred acres more or less, Adjoyning One Hungerfords [William Hungerford, William Smoot’s son-in-law] land formerly in the possessionof John Ward and now in the possession of John Morrice, More laid out One hundred acres more or lesse for John Slingsbey adjoyning upon the abouesaid Simkinsess land formerly in the posson of the abouesaid Nic° Gwyther and now in the possession of the aboue sd George Newman, More laid out for Humphery Howell a parcell of land lying on the north side of Potomack Riuer and bounding on the north wth the land of Thomas Petite on the north with the land of Thomas Mitchell on the west wth the said riuer on the East wth a line drawne south from the head of Conneys branch untill it inter sect a parralell drawne from the land of the abouesaid Petite Con tayning and now laid out for One hundred acres more or less and adjoyning to the abouesaid Petites land formerly in the possession of Jn° Gwy and now in the possession of Peter Carr, And being in all Three hundred acres more or lesse being taken up by Simkins, Slingsbey & Howell, Contã: by Estimacon and now laid out for three hun dred acres more or less now in the tenure or Occupaicon of him the said George Newman,…  Thomas Mitchell of Wicomico is believed to have died sometime around 1662.  The location of the tract of land cited in this indenture is believed to have been in Pickawaxen Hundred, which is illustrated in the map contained in Figure 19-20.  Figure 19-21 contains an inset of the Pickawaxen Hundred map depicting the southern-most tip of Wicomico-Potomac peninsula.  The tract being conveyed from Capt. Nicholas Gwyther to George Newman is believed to have been at the location illustrated in Figure 19-21 and identified as “George Newman”.  From the description contained in this indenture, it would appear that lands owned by Thomas Petite and Thomas Mitchell were situated to the northward of the tract acquired by George Newman, and probaably positioned within the red circle shown on Figure 19-21.

29.       Sep1667:  One of the witnesses in the case said that he had seen the assault when he was working at “goodie Michels”; this is doubtless Joan Mitchell (Michael), widow of Thomas Mitchell, about whom insinuations of witchcraft had been made a few years before…  Ditto.

30.       10Aug1669:  Elizabeth Bridgen, being now 9 years old is judged to serve mother Mitchell till she be 18 years old or that the old woman die, whichever first shall happen.  This may have been a record of Joan Mitchell, the widow of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen.  If so, then it seems probable that she was still living in the vicinity of Wicomico River.  The reference to “mother”, seemingly as a title or form of address is unfamiliar to the author, and therefore, cannot draw any specific meaning from its usage.

31.       26 Mar 1676:  Charles County Circuit Court Liber F, Page 184.  Deed of Gift from Thomas Hyatt to Joan Mitchell; 23 head of hogs and working tools; to the oldest son of Blanch Lomax, wife of Cliborne Lomax, 50 acres of land; I was assigned by Francis Femeley, dec’d, to look after his estate for the good of his son jointly with Thomas Breckeridge, do empower Joan Mitchell to look after said John Ferenley’s estate; /s/ Thom Thomas Buskeridge, Thomas Wells.  This Joan Mitchell is believed to have been the widow of Thomas Mitchell Sr. (of Pickawaxen).  Thomas Hyatt could be found in but a very few records, one in which he filed a patent for a 50 acre tract called “Mirbioth”, which abutted land owned by Edward Philpott.  The only patent found for Edward Philpot prior to this date was a tract called “Philpott” for 100 acres situated on the west side of the Wicomico River, formerly laid out for James Walker.  From Item No. 7, above, it was shown that James Walker sold a tract of land containing 200 acres to Christopher Carnall, situated in Wicomico, and abutting the land of Thomas Mitchell [Sr.].  It seems probable that the 50 acre tract being gift deeded from Thomas Hyatt to the eldest son of Blanch Lomax may have abutted the tract previously owned by James Walker which abutted Thomas Mitchell.  Consequently, it would appear that Joan Mitchell, widow of Thomas Mitchell was still residing at the southern tip of Pickawaxen Hundred near Charleston Creek.  Remember that Edward Philpot was married to a daughter of John Posey Sr.  There must have been a very close association between Thomas Hyatt and Joan Mitchell, that he would grant her the gift of 23 hogs and many items of personal property, including his tools.

32.       28 Mar 1676:  Charles County Circuit Court Liber F, Page 184.  Deed of Gift from Joan Mitchell, widow, to Thomas Wells all that belongs to me after my decease; excepting a cow to Johannah Philpott; /s/ Joan Mitchell (mark); wit. Bridgett Inglesby (mark), Elizabeth Morgan (mark).  It would appear that Joan Mitchell may have felt that she was nearing the end of her days, given that she appeared to be disposing of her property.  The author was unable to discover anything about her main benefactor, Thomas Wells.  Johanna Philpott is believed to have been a daughter of Edward and Bridget Philpott, born about 1664 and would have been only 12 years old in 1676.  Johanna would have become a sister-in-law of Susannah Posey.  If we are to believe Sherrie Boone Mitchell and Richard Kozney, Joan Mitchell would have had a son named Thomas, still living in Charles County in 1676.  This record leaves us to ponder why Joan Mitchell, the widow of Thomas Mitchell Sr., would have left all of her worldly goods to Thomas Wells and Johanna Philpott.  If she had a child still living in 1676, why would they not have been the benefactors of her meager estate?

33.       22May1743:  An Inquisition Indented att the house of Mrs. Bridge [Bridgett] Legatt Widdow in Charles County this Two & Twentyeth day of May in the Yeare of Our Lord One Thousand six hundred Seaventy five & in the forty third yeare of the Dominion of Cæcilius &c before Us John Douglas & Robert Doyne by Vertue of A Comission in the nature of A writt of Mandamus to Us directed & to the Said Inquisition Annexed to Enquire what Lands John Legatt late of Charles County aforesaid Dyed seized of at the time of his Death as of Fee in the said County & of what Manno.r & under what Rents or services & how much those lands & Tenements are of Value by the Yeare in all Issues & att what time the said John Legatt Dyed & who is his next heyre & of what Age the heyre is & who those lands & Tenements from the time of the death of the said John Legatt have or doth Occupy & the Issues or profitts hath & doth Receive & by what Title & how & in what manner & who hath payd the Rent for the same & to whom as in the Mandamus By the Oathes of Thomas Lomax Richard Ambrose Samuell Clarke Robert Roelants Walter Davies William Hinsey James Tyre Thomas Wakefeild John Newton John Fearson Thomas Chipsham & John Brookes The Jury Impannelled by the Sheriffe of Charles County doe upon theire oathes Say as followeth:  That William Smoote being Seized in his Demeasne as of Fee of & in A parcell of Land lying on the West side of Wiccocomico River Beginning at A Marked Oath the bound Tree of John Hatches Land & bounding on the East with A line drawne North & by West from the said Oake for the length of Two hundred Perches to an Oake standing neare the land of John Courts on the North with A line drawne west & by south from the End of the former line for the Length of Three hundred & Twenty Perches to A Marked Redd oake standing upon the head of the Branch Called Smooth [Smoot] branch till it intersect A Parralell line drawne from the said Hatches Oake on the South with the said Paralell Conteyning & now laid Out for Four hundred Acres be it more or lesse By Vertue of A Grant under the Great seale of this Province to him thereof Granted bearing date the Twenty Sixth day of Jan.ry in the Yeare of Our Lord One Thousand Six hundred fifty Two [26Jan1652] To be holden of his Lordpp the Lord Propry as of his Manno.r of West S.t Maryes under the yearly Rent of Eight shillings Sterling p Annu he the said William Smoote due upon the Twentyeth day of May One Thousand Six hundred Fifty Six [20May56] Assigne all his Right in the Premisses unto Humfrey Atwicks & Richard Smoote which Assignement was in Open Court in Charles County aforesaid Acknowledged by the said William Smoote & Grace his wife & the said Richard Smoote did upon the Eighth day of Jan.ry One Thousand Six hundred Fifty Six [8Jan1656/7] his Right & Title of the within Mentioned Patten unto Thomas Mitchell & his Assignes  And the said Thomas Mitchell upon the Third day of May One Thousand Six hundred fifty Nine [3May1659] did make over from him & his assignes all his Right & Title & interest of the said Patten unto the said Humfrey Atwicks his heyres or Assignes And the said Humfrey Atwicks being Seized & Possessed of the…  From the foregoing inquisition record we have the chain of title on a 400 acre tract of land originally patented to William Smoot on 26Jan1652.  This tract was conveyed on 20May1656 from William Smoot and his wife, Grace, unto Richard Smoot and Humphrey Atwicks.  On 8Jan1656/7 Richard Smoot conveyed his interest in the subject tract to Thomas Mitchell.  On 3May1659 Thomas Mitchell conveyed his interest in the subject tract to Humphrey Atwicks.  As of 3May1659 the entire 400 acre tract was in possession of Humphrey Atwicks, at which time the land became known as “Atwicke’s Purchase”.  The land ultimately was conveyed to John Legatt, whose estate was the subject of the cited inquisition.  From the chain of title for the 400 acre tract, it was originally patented by William Smoot and known by the name of “Smoothly”.  It is believed that this tract was situated at the location identified in Figure 19-21 as “William Smoot”, and that it was from this location that William Smoot operated his ship building business.  Albeit but briefly, Thomas Mitchell was in possession of part interest in Smoothly, jointly with Humphrey Atwicks, between 6Jan1656/7 and 3May1659.  Given that this tract abutted the land of John Hatch, and the fact that Thomas Mitchell filed a defamation complaint against John Hatch’s wife in Charles County on 14Nov1659, it seems highly probable that Thomas Mitchell, and his wife, Joan, resided in the lower part of Pickawaxen Hundred, nearby to George Newman, John Hatch, William Smoot, etal.  Since Thomas Mitchell filed a petition on 1Oct1650 for a tract of land totaling 300 acres, it seems highly probable that he was issued a warrant for that land which was situated along the south side of Charleston Creek as shown on current maps.

This concludes the presentation of evidence related to the original Thomas Mitchell immigrant to Maryland.  A brief recap of that data suggests that he first entered the Maryland Province sometime prior to his taking an oath of Fealty in 1646/7.  He appears to have had a tract containing 100 acres surveyed in his name on 25Aug1649 and situated on Neale’s Creek, which later appeared in the Rent Rolls of Charles County identified as Slingsby in the possession of George Newman (Item No. 2, above).  It seems probable that that tract was approved on the weight of Thomas Mitchell’s self-transport and ensuing headright.  He apparently was sufficiently affluent that he paid for his own transport and the transport of his wife and two children in 1648.  Based on the headrights earned for his family’s transport, Thomas Mitchell filed a claim for 300 acres on 10Oct1650, probably located on Charleston Creek at the southern tip of Pickawaxen Hundred, nearby to neighbors: George Newman, John Hatch, Thomas Petite, William Smoot and Humphrey Atwicks.  This is believed to have been the tract identified in the Rent Rolls of Charles County as Mitchell’s Platt, reportedly surveyed for Thomas Mitchell on 19Aug1658 (Item No. 8, above)  He was identified in records as a “planter”, but also appears to have been granted a license to operate an ordinary from his home.  He was also identified in one record as having been a mariner, wherein he appears to have been employed to work aboard ships making ports-of-call along the upper Potomac River.  At some point he became indebted to Capt. William Mitchell of the White House, St. Mary’s City in the amount of 1,000 lbt.  As security for that debt Thomas Mitchell bound a son to Capt. Mitchell.  When Capt. William Mitchell died in about Apr1659 at Northampton, VA, the debt of Thomas Mitchell was still outstanding and presumably Thomas Mitchell’s son was still indentured to Capt. William Mitchell’s estate.

Aside from the identification of Thomas Mitchell’s widow, Joan Mitchell, nothing more was discovered about his family, except that a son named Thomas may have been residing in Pickawaxen Hundred in Nov1664 when he filed a complaint in Court for lost or stolen hogs.  Nothing was discovered that would allow identification of his point of origin, or his family connections prior to his immigration to the colonies.  It cannot be discounted that Thomas Mitchell may have originated from one of the other colonies prior to entering Maryland.  The fact that he appears to have been in Maryland as early as 1646/7, but did not report the transport of his family until 1648 might suggest that he may have originated from Virginia, and was exploring the prospect of relocating to Maryland.  It is clear from the records that he was married with two children in 1648, and that he had a son sufficiently old to be placed in service (probably 5 years or older) with Capt. William Mitchell about 1655/6.  Based on the Court record abstracted in Item No. 27, above, it appears that he may have had a son named Thomas, who survived to adulthood, and who would have been born before 1643.

The author conducted a fairly thorough investigation into the early immigration records of Virginia, including a search of Pioneers and Cavaliers, Vol. 1.  If Thomas Mitchell had migrated into Maryland from Virginia, it seems possible that he might have been claimed as a head right in the Virginia patent records sometime prior to about 1645.  Following is a listing of all persons named Thomas Mitchell or near facsimile claimed as headrights in Virginia prior to about 1650:

1.         18Jun1636 – John Neale of Accomack County, 500 acres on Smith’s Island for transport of 10 persons, including Thomas Michell, etal. (p. 43).  This Thomas Michell was certainly transported at a sufficiently early date to have been the Thomas Mitchell, who later took the oath of fealty in Maryland around 1646/7.  If so, one might expect to find some record of this Thomas Michell in the records of Northampton County VA, yet no such records can be found.

2.         12Feb1637/8 – Capt. Adam Thorogood of Lower New Norfolk 600 acres on Lynnhaven River for transport of 12 persons, including Thomas Mitchell, etal. (p. 80).  The transport of this Thomas Mitchell claimed as a headright by Adam Thorogood in Feb1637/8 certainly fits with Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen Hundred.  The transport date of Feb1637/8 would certainly be early enough for this Thomas Mitchell to have completed an indentureship (usually upwards of seven years), and to have taken a wife and fathered two children before 1648.  The location of Lower New Norfolk also fits well with the established migration pattern from this period.  In fact, it was around 1650 that the Virginia General Assembly enacted a law calling for the expulsion of anyone refusing to attend the Anglican Church.  There were a fairly large number of religious dissenters, who had chosen Norfolk and Isle of Wight as a safe harbor for early settlement.  The timing and geographic location of this transported Thomas Mitchell would seem to be a good fit for Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen Hundred.

3.         18May1638 – John Cookney of Henrico County 150 acres upon land of Joseph Chadd and Richard Taylor for transport of three persons, including Thomas Mitchell, etal. (p. 88).  Although the date of the transport of this Thomas Mitchell would seem to fit well with Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen Hundred, its location in Henrico County does not fit with the predominant migration pattern out of Virginia and into Maryland in the middle of the 17th Century. 

If Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen Hundred did emigrate from Virginia, the most likely candidate would appear to have been the person claimed by Adam Thorogood in Feb1637/8.  Otherwise, we are left with the possibility that Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen emigrated from some other colony, i.e., Massechusettes or Pennsylvania, or that he was sufficiently affluent to pay the transport for himself and his wife and two children all the way from England.  The latter option seems improbable, given his apparent relatively small prospects in Maryland.  All things considered, it seems most probable to the author that Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen was first transported into Virginia, where he likely served an indentureship, married, and started a family, before following the emerging migration wave out of Norfolk VA to the upper Chesapeake.  Specifically, it seems possible that he was the person transported by Capt. Adam Thorogood in Feb1637/8.  Given the probability of a son born arounf 1643, the headright of Adam Thorogood is a very good fit.

One final anomaly pertaining to Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen was the appearance of a near neighbor named Warren Humphrey, shown on the Wicomico River, north of William Smoot (Figure 19-21) near Hatton Creek.  It may be mere coincidence, but Susan Warren, daughter of William Smith, who accompanied and possibly bankrolled the expedition of Capt William Mitchell to Maryland in 1650/1 was reputedly the “widow” of Humphrey Warren.  The biography of Humphrey Warren of Hatton’s Point, Wicomico River, is amply setforth by Harry Wright Newman in his book entitled Charles County Gentry, pp. 275 __.  There are several “facts” stated about the life of Humphrey Warren of Hatton’s Point, which correspond with the limited information known of Susan Smith-Warren.  Coincidentally, it appears highly likely that Humphrey Warren of Hatton’s Point married Ellenor Smoot, presumed daughter of Thomas Smoot, son of William Smoot.  Some researchers suggest that Joan Mitchell, wife of Thomas Mitchell may have been born Joan Smoot, daughter of William Smoot.  This identify of Joan (Smoot) Mitchell is unproven.  These connections between a close associate and confidant of Capt. William Mitchell (Susan Warren) and the near neighbor of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen (Humphrey Warren) may simply be coincidence, but worthy of consideration in the effort to establish possible kinship connection between Capt. William Mitchell and Thomas Mitchell.

We will close this investigation into Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen with the reminder that Mitchell family researchers, Sherrie Mitchell Boone and Richard Kozney would have us believe that this Thomas Mitchell and Capt. William Mitchell were brothers.  Further, that these same two researchers assert that Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen had a son named Thomas Mitchell [Jr.], who settled in Charles County and had a string of descendants that connected directly to Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County VA in 1766 and later.  These researchers further assert that Capt. William Mitchell had a son named William Mitchell [Jr.], who settled at South River, Anne Ardundel County MD and had a string of descendants that directly connected to John Isaac Mitchell of Bedford County in 1766 and later.  Suffice it to say that the author has found nothing in the records of Maryland or elsewhere that could be considered as “proof” of the purported connections between Thomas Mitchell [Jr.] or William Mitchell [Jr.] with Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen or Capt. William Mitchell.  Also, we have the Court record from Sep1674 in which Joan Mitchell, presumed widow of Thomas Mitchell, appears to be disposing of all her worldly goods to a person named Thomas Wells and a cow to Johanna Philpott.  If Joan Mitchell still had children living in 1674, it seems probable that they would heve been her benefactors.

That being said, we will now present the evidence associated with a second person named Thomas Mitchell, who was recorded in Charles County MD, in 1666.

1.         21Apr1666: Thomas Mitchell demandeth land for his transportation into the Province; warrant issued for 50 acres dated ut supra, returnable 21Oct1666.  [Liber EE, Folio 321]  At the time that this was recorded, Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen had been dead for almost seven years.  At this juncture there is insufficient information to suggest anything about the origins of this Thomas Mitchell except to state that he was an adult male, was present in Maryland in Apr1666, and that he appears to have paid for his own transport into the Province, which entitled him to a grant of 50 acres.  Also, the fact that he claimed only the single headright would suggest that he had not transported anyone besides himself, not a wife, children, other kinspersons or servants.  It is conceivable that this person may have been the son of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen.

2.         30Jun1666:  Be it known unto all men by these presents that I, William Gaskins of St. Maries County in the Province of Maryland, planter, for and in consideration of the sum of 100 lbt well and truly paid unto me by Thomas Mitchell of the same place, planter, have assigned and made over unto the said Thomas Mitchell all my right, title, interest, claim and demand of in and unto my own right of land due unto for serving my time in the said province with Thomas Taylor of Patuxent in the Province aforesaid which is and become due unto me for or by reason of the Conditions of Plantation of the Honorable Cecilius Baltimore, Lord Proprietor of the Province of Maryland and do hereby for the consideration aforesaid assign and make over all my right, title, interest, claim and demand of, in and to all every the premises to the said Thomas Mitchell, his heirs and assigns forever, witness my hand and seal this 30Jun1666.  Wit.: Thomas Courtney and Edward Savage.  [Liber EE (transcribed 9), Folio 451].  Also: Thomas Mitchell demands for transportating himself and 50 acres more by assignment from William Gaskin, his transportation into this Province.  Warrant was issued for 100 acres dat ut supra, return last of Dec1666.  [Liber EE, Folio 452]  Given the matching name and the close timing with the record presented in Item No. 1, above, it is a virtual certainty that these Thomas Mitchells were the same person.  From this filing it would appear that Thomas Mitchell purchased the landrights of William Gaskin.  Further, it is stated in the indenture that both William Gaskin and Thomas Mitchell were of St. Marys County at the time of the indenture filing, and that they were both identified as “planters”, suggesting the possibly that they already had land holdings.  Curiously, a William Gaskin, planter of Talbot County, on 25Mar1666 filed a petition with the Court for 100 acres of land based on his headright, and that of his wife, Margaret [Liber EE, Folio 431].  Given the matching names and dates, it seems probable that that was the same William Gaskins, who sold his rights to 50 acres to Thomas Mitchell by the foregoing indenture on 30Jun1666.  It is conceivable that this person may have been the son of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen.

No further records were found for anyone named Thomas Mitchell in the vicinity of Charles County for the next 13 years.  There are a few Court, estate and probate records of a Thomas Mitchell recorded in St. Mary’s County which may have pertained to a descendant of the foregoing Thomas Mitchell which are iterated as follows:

1.         May 25, 1682:  Thomas Mitchell is on the List of Debts in the Charles Co., Md. Inventory of Col. Benjamin Rozer.  Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Inventories & Accounts, Liber 7C, pp. 98-127.

2.         Oct-Nov1682:  Meeting of the General Assembly at St. Mary’s enacted numerous measures, including one in which 516,927 pounds of tobacco was appropriated for “the good people of this Province for the Public good of the same and to the intent the same may be satisfied and paid to whom the same is due…”.  Attached to this appropriation was a list containing payments to hundreds of individuals, among which are a smattering who identified by militia ranks, including sergeants, coporals, colonel, captain.  This list included the names of Thomas Mitchell, George Mitchell, John Wheeler, etal.  Nothing accompanying this appropriation or its disbursements identified its purpose.  It might be concluded that the greater purpose of this appropriation was to reimburse for militia service, but that is simply a guess.  From the author’s limited knowledge of the geographic location of persons named in this appropriation, it appears to range widely throughout the Province.  Consequently, it is virtually impossible to render an identity of the person named Thomas Mitchell, who was paid 40 lbt.  George Mitchell can be identified with some degree of certainty as having been from Somerset County MD, and John Wheeler almost certainly was from Charles County.  This Thomas Mitchell may have been the target of our investigation, namely from Charles County and married to a woman named Mary, but that is not an absolute certainty, as there are records of a Thomas Mitchell living in Dorchester County in the 1670’s.

3.         Feb1684/5 and Nov1687:  The St. Mary’s Co., Md. inventory and administration account of Dr. James Bourne/Bowren shows Thomas Mitchell on Bourne’s list of debts and that Bourne’s estate made a payment to Thomas Mitchell.  Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Inventories & Accounts, Liber 8, Page 310, and Liber 9, Page 440.  The author was unable to access the original of this abstract of an estate inventory filed in St. Mary’s County in 1684/5, and could not associate this Thomas Mitchell with the Thomas Mitchell recorded in Charles County commencing in about 1679.  It seems possible that this Thomas Mitchell was a different from the Thomas Mitchell of Charles County.

4.         June 1687 – The St. Mary’s Co., Md. inventory of John Baker shows Thomas Mitchell on Baker’s list of debts.  Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Inventories & Accounts, Liber 10, pp. 115-124.  Ditto, Item No. 2, above.

5.         1688 [undated; filed with 1688] – The St. Mary’s Co., Md. inventory of Thomas Gerard shows Thomas Mitchell on Gerard’s list of debts.  Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Inventories & Accounts, Liber 10, Page 177.  Ditto, Item No. 2, above.

Since Item Nos. 2 thru 4 were clearly identified as being estate records from St. Mary’s County, there is no reason to believe that they were associated with Thomas Mitchell of Charles County.  The identity of this Thomas Mitchell is not known with certainty, but it seems probable that he was a different person from the Thomas Mitchell, who began appearing in records in Charles County in the vicinity of Nanjemoy in 1679.  We will temporarily set aside these Thomas Mitchell records connected to St. Mary’s County, and direct our attention to those of a Thomas Mitchell specifically associated with the upper part of Charles County.  But, before introducing those upper Charles County records, we cannot avoid drawing the reader’s attention to one record from Anne Arundel County abstracted as follows:

1.         25Sep1674:  Came Capt. William Burgess of Anne Arundel County and proved his right to 550 acres of land for transporting Thomas Mitchell, Richard Dovington, John Whitley, John Asser, Elizabeth Warfield, Mary Tallington, Michael Person, William White, Susanna Saven, Nicholas Lamb and John Green into this province to inhabit.  Warrant then granted unto the said William Burgess for 550 acres of land being due to him for transporting the eleven above mentioned servants into this province to inhabit.  Certificate return the 25Dec1674. 

The timing of this record falls about midway between the last record that could clearly be associated with Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen (“mother Mitchell” circa 1669), and the earliest record that could clearly be associated with Thomas Mitchell of upper Charles County (Portobacco, Nanjemoy, Piscataway, beginning circa 1679).  Given that we are attempting to find a connection between William Mitchell of South River and Thomas Mitchell of Charles County, it would be very difficult to ignore this record of a Thomas Mitchell transported into the Province by Capt. William Burgess of South River, just five years before the earliest record of Thomas Mitchell in upper Charles County.  Sherrie Mitchell Boone and Richard Kozney would have us believe that there was a continuos sequence of persons descended from Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen residing in Charles County all the way into the mid-18th Century and beyond.  If that were so, it is difficult to explain the 13-year gap in the record trail.  It seems equally possible to the author that the Thomas Mitchell, who was transported by Capt. William Burgess in 1674 could have completed his ogligation to Capt. Burgess, and for unknown reasons may have been attracted to the Nanjemoy area sometime before 1679.  At a minimum, this would seem to be a line of inquiry worthy of further consideration.

Before we cast aside this transport record of Thomas Mitchell to the South River region, let’s explore a few more interesting connections.  At the same time that William Mitchell of South River, and this Thomas Mitchell were presumably concurrently in residence at that location, there was another person residing in that same area with an eerily familiar name.  A person named John Wheeler was transported into the Province in 1661 by James Southward:

2.         4Feb1661/2:  James Southward enters rights for transporting John Wheeler and eight other, all transported in 1661. [Liber AA, Folio 165]

The foregoing transport record made no mention of the geographic locale to which these persons were transported by James Southward, however, the following Court record summary suggests that James Southward was residing at South River around 1663 when he became embroiled in an affair involving falsification of the LWT of Jeremiah Haslin:

“Philip Holleger on behalf of his wife, Mary, the only surviving child of Jeremiah Hasling of South River, Anne Arundel County, deceased, petitioned the court to set aside a reputed will of Hasling made in favor of a certain James Southward, which Holleger denied was signed by Hasling. Evidence was pro duced which showed that Hasling was very ill at the time that the will was sup posed to have been made by him, and that there was something very dubious about the circumstances surrounding the making and the signing of the will; and that furthermore the only witness to the will itself was a certain Anthony Dimondidier, a beneficiary under it. The court at its October, 1665, session declared the will to be invalid, put Mrs. Holleger in possession of the land, and ordered Southward to file an account promptly of his acts as administrator. Holleger, who appears to have settled in Maryland in 1663, was a resident of that part of Baltimore County which is now Cecil County (pages 441-443, 493- 494, 564)”.

Consequently, it seems probable that James Southward was in residence at South River when he filed the foregoing petition claiming headrights, including a person name John Wheeler.  This John Wheeler was transported into the Maryland Province almost one decade after the transport of another John Wheeler by Capt. William Mitchell of the White House, St. Mary’s County.  This John Wheeler ultimately settled at South River.  On 26May1664 he and Richard Huggins had surveyed a tract called Timber Neck situated on the south side of South River, which from later deeds was found to have been situated on the north side of Beard’s Creek at Jacobs Cove.  On 23Jan1681 he also had a tract surveyed on the Magothy River called Wheeler’s Lot.  While the concurrent existence of a person named John Wheeler, residing along the south side of South River, probably within a mile or two of William Mitchell at Poplar Neck, is in itself an intruiging fact, there may have been an even more interesting connection soon to be revealed.  John Wheeler of South River is purported to have been married to Christian Robins, elder daughter of Edward Robins and Jane (Cornish) Puddington.  If true, this marriage would seemingly connect this John Wheeler as a brother-in-law to both Capt. William Burgess and Richard Beard Sr., who purportedly were married to Elizabeth Robins and Rachael Robins, respectively.  The author cannot vouch for the wife of this John Wheeler, but thinks it doubtful that she could have been a sister of Elizabeth and Rachael Robins. 

The identity of this John Wheeler and that of his wife is uncertain.  Clearly, his existence was noted by Walter V. Ball when he compiled “John Wheeler 1630-1693 of Charles County, Maryland” in 1966.  On page 16 of this publication is written the following brief biographical sketch of John Wheeler Jr.:

“JOHN WHEELER, Jr., son of John and Mary Wheeler:  The Archives of Maryland, Vol. 60, page 404 shows that John Wheeler, Jr. witnessed a deed in Charles County in Oct. 1671 when he was only 17 years of age.  No record was found of service on a jury or in military service.  On 13Jun1688 William Bateman and Christine, his wife, and John Gray signed as bondsmen for settlement of the estate of John Wheeler Jr.  On 15Jun1688 an inventory of the estate of John Wheeler Jr., was filed by Walter Phelps and James Gray for 46-08-00 (Invenyory and Accounts: Liber 10, Folio 87).  No children of John Wheeler Jr. could be identified and none mentioned in the Will of John Wheeler, Sr.”

This biographical sketch produces more questions than it provides answers.  At a minimum, it appears to the author that this compiler (Walter Ball) has inter-mixed a record from Charles County from 1671 and those related to the John Wheeler of Anne Arundel County (South River) in 1688.  The author’s initial inclination was to identify the John Wheeler of South River as the son of John Wheeler Sr. of Charles County.  However, on closer scrutiny, such identification appears doubtful.  Let’s drill down into the few facts presented by Ball in the foregoing biographical sketch for John Wheeler Jr. in order to put these “facts” into clearer perspective. 

First we have the only “fact” that can truly be associated with the family of John Wheeler Sr. of Charles County, that being the following abstract:

“The Archives of Maryland, Vol. 60, page 404 shows that John Wheeler, Jr. witnessed a deed in Charles County in Oct. 1671 when he was only 17 years of age.”

If accurate, this record would seemingly establish that John and Mary Wheeler did in fact have a child called John Wheeler [Jr.] and that he was born about 1654.  This fact is further supported by the following Maryland Court record entered on 14Jan1667 in which the children of John Wheeler of Charles County were listed by name and age [Proceedings of the County Courts of Charles County 1666-1674; Liber 60, Folio 117]:

1.         John Wheeler the Sonne of John Wheeler was Borne in the yeare 1654.

2.         James Wheeler Sonne of the said John Wheeler was borne 9 Dayes before Christmas 1656.

3.         Marie Wheeler was Borne on the 22th of March 1658.

4.         Thomas Wheeler Sonne of the said John Wheeler was borne on the 18th of March in the yeare 1660

5.         Winifrett Wheeler Sonne of the said John was borne in March 1663.

6.         Ignatius Wheeler Sonne of the said John was Borne in May 1665.

So, clearly the John Wheeler of South River could not have been the son of John Wheeler of Charles County.  John Wheeler of South River patented a tract of land in partnership with Richard Huggins on 26May1664 called Timber Neck.  John Wheeler Jr. of Charles County would have been only 10 years old. 

Next, we have the abstracted record from Ball’s John Wheeler compilation reiterated as follows:

“On 13Jun1688 William Bateman and Christine, his wife, and John Gray signed as bondsmen for settlement of the estate of John Wheeler Jr.”

Presumably, Ball believed that this record had some reference to the son of John Wheeler of Charles County, when in fact this record pertained to the son of John Wheeler of South River.  The reader may recall that we earlier stated an assertion by others that John Wheeler of South River was married to Christian [aka Christine?] Robins, daughter of Edward Robins and Jane Cornish.  That assertion may or may not be correct (probably not).  What we do know is that the “Christine” cited in the foregoing abstract was the widow of John Wheeler of South River, who had married William Bateman after John Wheeler’s decease in 1684.  Moreover, we also know that John Gray had been a partner of William Roper in the acquisition of land in Anne Arundel County.  So, it is quite clear that the foregoing record cited by Ball was actually connected to the son of John Wheeler of South River.  For a bit more information pertaining to John Wheeler of South River, the reader is referred to “First Families of Anne Arundel County, Maryland, 1649-1658; Volume 2: The Headrights”, Donna Valley Russell, 2002, pp. 158-9.

Perhaps the most revealing history connected to John Wheeler of South River can be learned through the chain of title connected with the tract called Timber Neck.  Although initially patented by John Wheeler and Richard Huggins as co-partners on 26May1664, Richard Huggins soon after sold his half interest (believed to have been 100 acres) to Richard Beard Sr., husband of Rachel Robins.  This transaction set up a cloud over the rightful title of Timber Neck, which would continue for over 30 years.  Following is a Court record which provides a glimpse into the twisted trail of occupancies and perceived ownerships:

“An Act to Supply Certain Defects in the Conveying of Lands from Matthew Beard to Stephen Wright and from Stephen Wright to Samuel Chambers of Ann Arundell County Gent. Whereas Matthew Beard late of Ann arundell County in the province of Maryland Carpenter by his Deed of bargain & Sale bear- ing date the Twelfth day of November Anno Dom one thousand and seven hundred and eight for the Consideration of twenty five pounds Sterling granted and sold unto Stephen Wright of the same County and province Planter and to his heirs and Assignes forever the moyety or half parte of a Tract or parcell of land Called Timber neck Lying in Ann arundell County on the South Side of South River on the West side of a Creek Called Jaccobs Creek Beginning at a marked red oake standing upon a point and running for breadth West South west up the Creek one hundred and Sixty perches to a marked Oak by a Marish side being a bounded tree of Richard Beards on the west by Beards line drawn west and by north two hundred perches to a marked pock hiccory and by a line drawn north and by East from the said Pock hiccory fifty perches to a marked red oake in the line of Richard Chenys land and by Chenys line East south East twenty five perches to a marked white oake bounded on the North by a line drawn North north East from the said Oak one hundred perches to a marked Pock hiccory and from the said Pock hiccory north East and by North to a marked Oake by a Branch in the line of the land laid out for Murreen Duvall and William Young on the East by the said Land on the south by Jacobs Creek Containing and laid out for two hundred acres more or less being formerly granted to Richard Uggins [Huggins] and John Wheeler that is to say that moyety or halfe parte of the said Tract of land Called Timber neck formerly Occupied by the said John Wheeler and late in the Tenure or Occupation of William Bateman of Ann arundell County late deced as by the same Deed duly Executed and acknowledged and now remaining upon the land Records of Ann Arundell County in the Book marked P L page four hundred and Eighty two reference being thereto had may more at Large appear And whereas the said Stephen Wright by his Deed of Bargaine and Sale bearing date the Sixteenth day of May Anno Domini Seventeen hundred and Eleven for the Consideration of Thirty five pounds Sterling granted and sold the said moyety or halfe part of the Tract of land aforesaid unto Samuell Chambers of the same County and Province Gentleman and to his heirs and Assignes forever as by the Deed thereof duly Execu- ted and acknowledged and now remaining upon the same land records and in the same Book aforementioned page four hundred and Eighty five reference being thereto Likewise had may more fully appeare. But forasmuch as the said Stephen Wright Omitted to get his aforemen- tioned Deed from Matthew Beard Recorded in time so that by the Act of Assembly of this province for Quieting possessions Enrolling Con- veyances and secureing the Estates of purchasers no Estate in the said land was past thereby and for that the said Matthew Beard and Stephen Wright are Both since deceased And for that the said Samuel Chambers on finding the said first mentioned Deed not recorded Omitted Recording the said Deed from Wright to himself well knowing the Recording the said Deed would avail him nothing unless he Could procure a Confirmation of the aforementioned first Deed so that Neither of the said Deeds were recorded within the Express time Limitted by the act afd Whereupon the said Samuel Chambers being otherwise Remediless has petitioned this present Generall Assembly for relief in this Behalfe and for that the Truth of the premises is Sufficiently made appeare and that the Considera- tions of the said respective Sales have been duly paid and that the Petitioners case most properly requires an Equitable reliefe by an Act to be past in his favour. It is therefore humbly praid that it may be Enacted.”

The foregoing court case only addresses one half of the tract called Timber Neck.  In order to understand the full import of the chain of title connected with this tract of land, we must also understand the history associated with the other half, which was purchased by Richard Beard Sr.  Suffice it to say that the “cloud” over the title arose from the fact that the original patent was granted for 200 acres and to be equally held by Richard Huggins and John Wheeler.  At the time that Richard Huggins sold his interest in Timber Neck to Richard Beard, the land was yet undidived.  All that Richard Huggins was legally capable of conveying was his half-interest [undivided] in the tract.  In the meantime, John Wheeler [Sr.] continued to reside upon part of the tract, presumably on his share or half-interest in the tract.

Nearing his death, John Wheeler Sr. wrote his Will, dated 21Nov1684, in which he devised to his only son, John Wheeler [Jr.] 100 acres of Timber Neck and all that tract called Wheeler’s Lot on Cattail Creek (near Magothy River), with Richard Beard, elder son of Richard Beard [Jr.], as reversionary heir.  If Beard [Richard III] failed, then to his brother, Matthew Beard, and if Matthew failed, then the land was to go toward the building and repairing the church in the town or port appointed to be on the land of William Burgess near South River, for the Christian Protestants [i.e., London Town]…  It is unclear from the records the reason that John Wheeler would have wished that Timber Neck should revert to Richard and/or Mathew Beard, sons of Richard Beard Jr.  It is conceivable that that wish may have arisen from the fact that Richard Beard Sr. had purchased the other half interest in Timber Neck.  Some researchers would have it that John Wheeler and Richard Beard Sr. were brothers-in-law, in which case Wheeler’s wish may have been driven by interests of kinship. 

Presumably, when John Wheeler Jr. died in Jun1688, his interest in 100 acres of Timber Neck would have reverted to Richard Beard [III], he failing, then to his brother, Matthew Beard.  From the foregoing Court record we learn that Matthew Beard disposed of his interest in Timber Neck by conveyance to Stephen Wright on 12Nov1708. 

An even more interesting aspect of the chain of title associated with Timber Neck arises from the half interest sold by Richard Huggins to Richard Beard.  In his Will dated 24Jul1674, Richard Beard [Sr.] devised “part of Timber Neck” to his daughter, Ruth Beard [wife of John Gaither].  Ruth Beard in turn sold her interest in Timber Neck to Dr. William Jones.  At the death of Dr. William Jones, he devised Timber Neck (100 acres) and West Puddington (50 acres) to his daughter, Susannah Jones [Rawlings] wife of Aaron Rawlings.  Dr. Jones is particularly important to this investigation into the origins of William Mitchell of South River, as they were both named as overseers of the estate of Thomas Roper.  For their work as overseers Dr. William Jones was granted a horse, and William Mitchell was granted a long gun.  The reader may recall that it was Thomas Roper, who claimed a headright in 1661 for the transport of William Mitchell.  The reader may also remember that Thomas Roper and Nicholas Gassaway were claimed as headrights be Richard Ewen [Owen or Owings] in Anne Arundel County, and also by Thomas Green in New Lower Norfolk County VA around 1650. 

Following is a list of clients named in the estate settlement for Dr. William Jones, who died intestate in 1678:

1) George COAPE

2) Ninian Bell/Beale

3) Capt. Thomas BEASON: (daughter Hester, wife of Nicholas GASSAWAY)

4) John Beale

5) Edward Dorsey

6) Cornelius Howard

7) Col. William Burgess

8) John Foster and Edward Foster

9) John GATHER/Gaither [husband of Ruth Beard]

10) Anthony De Montidier [wit. In suit against James Southward]

11) Edward Parish

12) Peter Barnard

13) Richard Beard Sr and JR. and John Beard

14) Benjamin Lawrence

15) Thomas Plumer

16) Andrew Norwood

17) William Ridgely

18) John Powell

19) John Durden

20) Robert Proctor

21) Walter Phelps

22) William Roper

23) James Fressell

24) John Wheler

25) Samuel Garland

26) Francis Crisman

27) John Dring

28) James Saunders [2nd husband of

29) Nathaniel Heathcott

30) Henry Kidd

31) William Fergasson

32) Robert Conant

33) Hugh Reiley [Riley]

34) John Stimpson

35) John Thomas

36) Edmon Purdow

37) John Gray

38) John Jones

39) Joane Tailor

40) Robert Sidebottom

41) Anthony Rawlins [son-in-law of Dr. William Jones]

42) William Parker

43) Robert Harvey

44) John Gressam

45) Raichard Everyway

46) William Ramsey

47) Tobias Sumers

48) William Boman

49) John Building

50) John Bannister

51) John Carpenter

52) Thomas Seaborne

53) Thomas Lunn

54) Thomas Madox

55) John Armstrong

56) John Jacobs

57) Francis Collier

58) Edward Brock

59) Leonard Hayman

60) Estate of Edwad Roe

The foregoing list of Dr. William Jones’ clients includes the names of some of the most illustrious settlers in Colonial Anne Arundel County, and particularly includes the names of several persons directly connected with this current investigation into John Wheeler of South River, i.e., John Wheler [sic], John Gray, William Roper, Anthony Rawlings, Richard Beard Sr. and Jr., John Gaither, Col. William Burgess and Thomas Beeson [father-in-law of Nicholas Gassaway]. 

Now, someone reading the foregoing history of Timber Neck plantation and John Wheeler of South River may say “that’s all well and good, but is it really relevant to the history of Thomas Mitchell of Charles County MD”?  If genealogical research were only that simple, we could have accepted the purported connection between Thomas Mitchell of Charles County and Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen.  But in reality, genealogical research oftentimes is lacking in specific documentation that allows the researcher to directly connect the dots.  More often than not, because of the sparsity of records in Colonial times and earlier, we are given only a patchwork of records.  Because of this reality, the researcher is often left to exercise logic, reason, and good judgment in formulating conclusions regarding kinship connections.  The author cannot state with certainty that there was a connection between the Thomas Mitchell, who was transported into the South River area of Anne Ardundel County MD by Capt. William Burgess in 1674, and the Thomas Mitchell, who started appearing in records of Charles County in 1679, but given all of the “facts” presented herein before, it does seem possible.  Whether John Wheeler of South River may have held any kinship connection to John Wheeler of Charles County cannot be absolutely determined from the data that has been discovered at this juncture, but it seems possible.  What can be stated with some certainty is that John Wheeler Jr. of South River was not the son of John Wheeler of Charles County, in spite of the inferences by Walter Ball.  Whether there was a kinship connection between John Wheeler of South River and John Wheeler of Charles County, the reader will be left to ponder just what that connection may have been.  Given their relative ages, it seems possible that they may have been 1st cousins. 

Before leaving this investigation into these John Wheelers, the author cannot resist introducing one final record:

1642:  “oath to present ffugitives, John hollis John mansell:  who presented william hoo, walter broadhurst robt nicolls, kins, william Edwin, John, John hamton, henry bishop, Robinson barbr miles, richd, James Cauther, thomas bushel, francis Stoure, thomas Allen, francis posie & John wheeler, ffugitives for debt.” [Judicial and Testamentary Business of the Provincial Court, 1637-1650, Volume 4, pp. 187-8]

This record predates the earliest known record of John Wheeler of Charles County, who appears to have been transported by Capt. William Mitchell in 1651 and by deposition was aged about 21 years (born about 1630).  The age of this John Wheeler is supported by later Court depositions, wherein he reported ages that generally comport with a birth year of about 1630.  Given that set of facts, it seems questionable whether he would have been the John Wheeler cited as a fugitive debtor in 1642.  Even though John Wheeler would have been only about 14 or 15 years old on 1642, it is conceivable that these could have been the same persons.  It is possible that John Wheeler may have been transported as an indentured servant, aged in his early-teens around 1642, and that he ran away from his master, hence “a fugitive from debt”.  He could have gotten passage back to England, possibly working as a “seaman”, where he then was hired by Capt. William Mitchell at Deptford for the return voyage in 1651.  It should also be noted that Francis Posey was among those listed with Thomas Mitchell as taking the oath of fealty in 1646.  Possibly pure coincidence, the Francis Posey, who was listed as a co-fugitive with John Wheeler in this Court filing, is believed to have been the immigrant ancestor of various John Poseys, who would appear in records with various Thomas Mitchells in Charles County between about 1680 and 1780.  (more to follow)  The following record abstracts would suggest that Francis Posey was a near neighbor of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen:

15 Jan’y 1648 – FRANCIS POSEY demands 100 acres for transplanting himself into the Province in 1640, and 300 acres more by assignment &c.  Warrant for 400 acres in Wiccocomico River on north side of Mr. Neale’s Creek. (Land Office, Lib. ABH, fol. 10).  This tract being on Mr. Neale’s Creek would place it within a couple of miles of Thomas Mitchell’s tract known as “Mitchell’s Platt”.  A thorough search of the Internet failed to identify the stream identified as “Mr. Neale’s Creek”.  However, several land records presented in this ananysis have been associated with either Neales Creek of Neales Back Creek.  Given the location of those tracts at the southern tip of Pickawaxen, it seems possible that references to “Neale’s Creek” may have been references to Neal Sound Channel and its minor tributaries.

Also,

1Mar1737/8 – The deposition of Mr. John Shaw Sr, age about 75, who says that about 50 years ago, this deponent heard several persons say that this place where the deponent now stands, was formerly called the Hole, it being now within the corn field of Mr. John Lancaster and near the Main Road that goes to the Ship Landing where Mr. Henry Neale now lives, but that he knows nothing of the bounds of any lands that the sd Hole relates to, and this deponent further says that when Mr. John Sanders received the quitrents for his Lordship, he told this deponent that the creek now called Charles Town [Charleston] Cr was formerly known by the name of Poseys Cr.  Charleston Creek is the name of the tributary on the west side of Wicomico River at the extreme southern tip of Pickawaxen, and the same estuary on which Smoot’s Shipyard was situated.  The fact that Charleston Creek may formerly have been known as Posey Creek suggests that Francis Posey’s land was situated within the red circle shown on Figure 19-21 denoting the probable location of Thomas Mitchell’s land.

It is now time for us to return our attention to Charles County, and our search for the identity of Thomas Mitchell, the purported ancestor of Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County.  To facilitate our analysis of Thomas Mitchells of Charles County, Figure 19-22 is offered for the reader’s reference.  Although this is not a precise boundary map, it does provide a generally accurate location of the Hundreds erected in Charles County during the colonial period.  Pickawaxen Hundred would have been a predecessor of the area delineated as “Lower William and Mary Hundred”.  This map illustrates several key geographic points that the reader should keep in mind.  First, it should be noted that the Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen resided at the extreme southern end of Charls County, immediately across the Wicomico River estuary from St. Mary’s County, and in relatively close proximity to St. Mary’s City, the seat of government during the 1st half century after the Province was founded.  Next, it should be noted that commencing in about 1679 another Thomas Mitchell began to establish himself in the County, initially at Nanmejoy, then further north along the south side of the Piscataway, and ultimately along the west side of Portobacco.  Although not an inordinate distance, the lower tip of Pickawaxen Hundred is noticeably separated geographically from Nanjemoy, Portobacco and Mattawoman.  Since the Potomac River would have been used as one of the primary transport routes in this region, it is not too difficult to invision that Thomas Jr., son of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen, may have migrated up the Potomac from Wicomico, and have settled initially at Nanmejoy.

Following is a presentation of the records containing references to Thomas Mitchell of upper Charles County:

1.         25Nov1679:  An Inquisition Indented taken the Twenty fifth day of November in the fourth year of the Dominion of the R.t Hon.ble Charles absolute Lord & Prop.ry of the Provinces of Maryland & Avalon Lord Baron of Baltemore &c and in the year of our Lord one thousand Six hundred Seventy nine [25Nov1679] at the house of Rob.t Doyne Gent at Nanjemy in Charles County before John Stone & William Barton Gent by Virtue of a Commission to them directed in the nature of a writt of mandamus and to this Inquisition annexed by the Oaths of Cleborne Lomax George Godfrey Thomas Mitchell John Clement James Wheeler, Richard Hall Nicholas Cooper mathew ifarman, John Boise, John Lambert, William Theobalds Phillip Hoskins to go along with Richard Edelen or Cap.t Rand.o Bn[r]andt or either of them that they Begin his or their Survey of a (fol. 309) parcell of Land Called Rotterdam Lying in Nanjemy in Charles Co.ty aforesd.  This was the first record found for a person named Thomas Mitchell in Charles County, since the report of missing hogs by Thomas Mitchell [Jr.] in Pickawaxen in 1664.  This record followed the patent filing by Capt. William Burgess by just four years.  It seems highly possible that that Thomas Mitchell had earned his freedom from Capt. Burgess, and had chosen to settle in the Nanjemoy area.  It is of particular note that this record combines James Wheeler and Thomas Mitchell as co-commissioners.  This James Wheeler is believed to have been the second eldest son of John Wheeler of Charles County (hereinafter Maj. John Wheeler), born six days after Christmas in 1656.  Given that the subject inquisition was held at the home of Robert Doyne at Nanjemy, it would be reasonable to believe that this Thomas Mitchell and James Wheeler were freemen, and possibly landowners in that region of Charles County.  The subject tract called “Rotterdam” contained 550 acres and was situated near another tract called “Indian Town”.  Rotterdam was originally surveyed for a Dutchman named Simon Oversea, but he died intestate before having completed the patent, at which time Rotterdam became escheat.  Ultimately, Robert Doyne, Gentleman, filed the patent, and later devised the tract to his heirs. 

This might be a good opportunity to introduce members of the Adam Thorogood family, who had close ties to the Nanjemoy area of Charles County during the middle of the 17th Century.  The children of Adam Thorogood and Sarah Offley were as follows:

1.         Anne Thoroughgood: b. 30Oct1630, Lower Norfolk County, Virginia; d. Aft Mar1702/03, Westmoreland County, Virginia (Age > 73 years); married (1) Job CHANDLER, son of Unknown CHANDLER and Sarah Yeardley. He was born BET 1580 AND 1630 in Norfolk, Virginia, and died 24 AUG 1659 in Portobacco, St. Mary’s City, MD.  He served as Receiver-General of Maryland, and Member of the Council, June 9, 1651; and was a Member of the Council, 1651-1654 and 1656-1659 (2) Gerard FOWKE 12 JAN 1660/61 in Charles County, Maryland, son of Roger FOWLKE and Mary BAYLEY. He was born 1634 in Gunston Hall, Staffordshire, England, and died 1669 in VA.  NOTE:  Gerrard Folke is believed by some researchers to have been the brother of Thomas Folke, very possibly one of the headrights claimed by Capt. William Mitchell on his land certificate filed in Oct1658 in Northampton County.

2.         Sarah Thoroughgood: b. 1631, Lower Norfolk County, Virginia; d. 9Oct1658, Charles County, Maryland (Age 27 years); married Symon OVERZEE, a native of Rotterdam, South Holland. He died FEB 1658/59.  So, a daughter of Adam Thorogood was the wife of the original filer, Simon Overzee, on the tract caller Rotterdam. 

3.         Elizabeth Thoroughgood: b. Abt 1633, Lower Norfolk County, Virginia; d. Abt 1670, Northampton County, Virginia (Age ~ 37 years); married John MICHAEL. He was born ABT 1625 in Graft, Noor Holland, died 28Jan1678/79, Northampton County, Virginia.  The author has performed extensive research on John Michael of Northampton County VA, which research is thoroughly documented in a manuscript entitled “Chapter 8 – The John Mitchell Family of Maryland”.

4.         Adam Thoroughgood: b. Aft 1638, Lower Norfolk County, Virginia; d. 1 Feb 1685/86, Lower Norfolk County, Virginia (Age < 46 years); married Frances YEARDLEY, daughter of Argoll YEARDLEY and Anne CUSTIS. She was born ABT 1638 in London, England [more likely at Rotterdam, Holland], and died 1 FEB 1685/86 in Norfolk, Virginia.

2.         8Jun1680:  Thomas Mitchell presents a woman servant to the Court to be adjudged of her age named Amy Norton.  She is adjudged to be 17 years of age.  [Liber H, Folio 99].  Given the matching name and temporal proximity to the preceding record, it is highly probable that these were the same Thomas Mitchell.  From this record it can be surmised that Thomas Mitchell had resided in the vicinity of Nanjemy for several years, and that he was sufficiently wealthy as to own servants.

3.         8Nov1681:  Thomas Mitchell, etal., sworn onto jury.  At same session Thomas Mitchell, John Posey, etal., sworn to office of Constable.  [Liber I, Folio 175-6].  Ditto.  To be appointed to the office of Constable, Thomas Mitchell would likely have been a land owner in his community for several years, and was an upstanding and respected member of that community.  This was the first of several instances of Thomas Mitchell and John Posey interacting in records.  This John Posey is believed to have been the son of Francis Posey, who lived in Pickawaxen Hundren, nearby to Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen.

4.         10Jan1681/2:  Thomas Mitchell presents two men servants: one named Benjamin Bucklow, who is adjudged 9 years of age, and the other named David Wheeler, who is adjudged 18 years of age.  [Liber I, Folio 225].  Ditto.  When taken into context with Item No. 3, above, it would appear that Thomas Mitchell was sufficiently wealthy to have owned three servants.  The identity of the servant named David Wheeler is uncertain, but may have been a kinsman of Maj. John Wheeler. 

5.         May 25, 1682 – Thomas Mitchell is on the List of Debts in the Charles Co., Md. Inventory of Col. Benjamin Rozer.  Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Inventories & Accounts, Liber 7C, pp. 98-127.  In itself, there was nothing particularly remarkable about Thomas Mitchell having been reported as a debtor on the estate settlement of Col. Benjamin Rozier, who was a merchant of Portobacco with literally hundreds of creditors (including Maj. John Wheeler).  However, the history of Col. Rozer does have connections important to our investigation of Thomas Mitchell.  For example, Col. Rozer married Anne Sewell, daughter of Dr. Francis Sewell, as his 2nd wife.  Anne Sewell was a sister-in-law of Susannah Burgess, eldest daughter of Capt. William Burgess of South River, she having married Nicholas Sewell.  A younger sister of Susannah Burgess, also named Susannah Burgess, would marry John Mitchell, son of William Mitchell of South River, as his 2nd wife in 1700.  Dr. Henry Sewll is believed to have married Jane Lowe, daughter of Vincent Lowe.  Although not yet proven, a descendant of Vincent Lowe’s family named Elizabeth Lowe, is believed to have married John Isaac Mitchell in Baltimore County MD in 1734.  Equally interesting is the fact that Col. Benjamin Rozer was the tranporter of Robert Middleton, who married Mary Wheeler, daughter of Maj. John Wheeler.  A daughter of Thomas Wheeler, brother of Mary Wheeler, is believed to have married a Thomas Mitchell of Portobacco, in the early part of 1700’s.  To muddy the water even further, Col. Benjamin Rozer purchased a tract of land from Edmund Lynsy on 18Mar1666/7, said tract being a moiety of land originally containing 1000 acres, and sold by William Lewis to Job Chandler and Simon Overzee.  Does this name sound familiar?  Didn’t we just discuss at tract called “Rotterdam” in Item No. 1, above, which had devolved from Simon Overzee?  Well, it would appear that Col. Benjamin Rozer had purchased Simon Overzee’s old tract in Jan1666/7, which had develoved to Edmund Lynsy through a rather circuitous chain of title.  Apparently, Simon Overzee had married Elizabeth Willoughby after the death of his 1st wife, Sarah Thorogood, in about 1658-9.  The tract appears to have devolved to Elizabeth Willoughby-Overzee after Simon’s death in 1660.  Elizabeth Willoughby-Overzee then married George Colclough in 1662, and then Isaak Allerton in 1663 (descended from a Mayflower immigrant of Plymouth MA), who then sold the tract to Edmund Lynsy in 1663.  One final peculiarity is that Elizabeth Willoughby’s sister, Alice Willoughby, married a Francis Sewell in Lower New Norfolk VA in about 1631.  [You really can’t make this stuff up.  Truth is truly stranger than fiction.]

6.         13Mar1682/3:  Richard Wakelin and wife, Mary, do in open Court acknowledge this ensuing indenture of conveyance to be their act, deed, vitz., all their right, title, interest to the land within ____ to the form and effect of the within written indenture unto Thomas Mitchell.  THIS INDENTURE made the 13Mar1682/3 between Richard Wakelin and Mary, his wife, of Charles County in the Province of Maryland, planter, of the one part, and Thomas Mitchell of same, planter, of the other part, for 2,500 lbt, tract of land lying in Charles County called Green Chase lying and being at Nanjemony, beginning at a marked white oak standing on a deep branch, near the plantation of Edward Knight, binding on the south with the said Knight’s land… laid out for 200 acres.  Wit.: John Fanning, Henry Hardy and Robert Thompson.  [Liber K, Folio 130].  This was the first record found in which Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy was shown to possess land.  However, given the preceding records in which he was recorded as owning three servants, and was appointed constable, it seems probable that he was previously in possession of land.  The tract is said to have abutted Edward Knight’s land.  From “Early Landowners of Maryland, Volume 4: Charles County 1640-1710”, by Robert W. Hall, Edward Knight is reported to have patented only one tract called Find One which was “on the path from Chingomuxen”.  A study of the grants of abutting patents called Árdington Hall”, “Hopewell” and “Horne Faire”, this tract was likely located on the west side of Great Beaver Dam Creek in the area denoted on Figure 19-23.  FYW, all three of these abutting tracts (Hopewell, Ardington Hall and Horne Faire) were in possession of John Posey Jr. in the 1750’s.  On 6Sep1760 John Posey III purchased Green Chase from Thomas Mitchell.  Following are several records relating to this tract, called Green Chase:

a.         Apr. 18, 1680 – “Green Chase,” containing 200 acres in Charles Co., Md., is patented to Richard Wakelyn.  Source: Coldham, Peter W., “Settlers of Maryland, 1679-1700,” Page 178.

“To the Right Honorable Lord Proprietor:  In obedience of his Lord Proprietor’s warrant bearing date 6Apr1680 for 200 acres of land granted to Richard Wakelyne of Charles County, planter, ___ that I, Randall Brandt, Deputy Surveyor, under the honorable Vincent Lowe, Surveyor General of this Province, have laid out for the said Wakelyne a certain tract of land called Green Chase to be held of Lachiah Manor and beginning at a bounded white oak standing by a deep branch near the plantation of Edward Knight, and bounds on the south with the said land, with a line drawn WSW 100 perches to a bounded red oak, thence NNW 320 perches to a bounded red oak, thence ENE 100 perches to a bounded oak standing by a branch, thence  to the first bounded tree, containing and laid out for 200 acres.  Certified 18Apr1681.” [DB WC 3, Folio 483 (p. 258)] (Transcribed by author from microfilm)  This would appear to have been the record of the original patent filing on Green Chase by Richard Wakelyne.

b.         Nov. 14, 1682-Dec. 5, 1682 – Richard Wakelin vs. Thomas Mitchell. Sheriff’s return: I have taken Thomas Mitchell [into custody?]. (Charles Co., Md. Circuit Court, Liber K, Page 36.)  From this record it would appear that Thomas Mitchell had become indebted to Richard Wakelin.  It seems strange that Richard Wakelin would entertain the arrest of Thomas Mitchell just four months before entering into the sale of Green Chase in Mar1682/3.

c.         Mar. 16, 1687/8 – “Green Chance,” containing 200 acres in Charles Co., Md., is patented to Richard Wakelyn.  Location: Charles County in the woods beginning at a bound white oak standing by a deep branch next adjoining Edward Knight’s tract of land called “Final One.”  Note: No land rights involved. This was a “good-guy” grant usually given by the Lord Proprietor out of personal affection to persons are “beloved” by him to enable them to continue to render satisfactory services to himself and to his heirs.  Source: Hall, Robert W., “Early Landowners of Maryland, Volume 4: Charles County, 1640-1710,” Page 205.  This record would make it appear that Richard Wakelin may have been granted another tract of 200 acres called Green Chance.  However, the description of this tract appears to be identical to that of the original patent filing on the tract called Green Chase.  It is unclear to the author whether there were in fact two tracts: one called Green Chase, and another called Green Chance, or whether they were one and the same tract. (probably only one tract)

d.         8 Apr 1719:  Charles County Land Records, Liber H#2, Page 227.  Recorded at request of Elizabeth Noble:  28 Mar 1719; William White and Mary his wife of Stafford County, Virginia, appoint Henry Brett, planter, as atty. to make over unto Elizabeth Noble, spinster, part of a tract called Green Chance; being 100 acres that Richard Wakelin left his dau. Mary Waklin; /s/ William White, Mary White (mark); wit. John Posey (mark), Francis Dunnington (mark); proved by witnesses.  Although the tract identified in this deed is called Green Chance, it seems possible that it may actually have been the tract called Green Chase, patented by Richard Wakelin on 18Apr1680, and sold by Richard and Mary Wakelyne to Thomas Mitchell on 13Mar1682/3.  This possibility is supported by the deed abstracted in Item 6-f, below.  On 5Sep1760 a person named Thomas Mitchell conveyed one-half or moiety of a tract called Green Chase containing 100 acres to John Posey.  The description of that tract appears to match that of the original patent filing for Green Chase.  From this current record it would appear that Richard Wakelyne had devised one half or 100 acres to his daughter, Mary Wakelyne.  It seems probable that Mary, the wife of William White, was that daughter of Richard Wakelyne, and that she and her husband, William White, were conveying that 100 acres moiety of Green Chance [aka Chase] to Mary’s daughter from an earlier marriage, Elizabeth Noble.  Having sold the entire 200 acre tract to Thomas Mitchell in Mar1682/3, it is difficult to understand how it may have been in Richard Wakelyne’s power to convey half of that tract to his daughter, Mary.  The most logical explanation is that Thomas Mitchell ay have either defaulted on his purchase, or may have conveyed the tract back to Richard Wakelyne.  Since the deed books are missing in Charles County from about 1700 to about 1730, it is conceivable that Thomas Mitchell did convey this tract (or at least 100 acres) back to Richard Wakelyne before Richard’s death around 1711 and that the record of that conveyance is missing.

e.         1642-1753 Rent Rolls Charles County, Maryland Hundred – Nanjemoy or Durham Parish: Rent Roll page/Sequence: 339-37: GREEN CHANCE: 200 acres; Possession of – 100 Acres – Mitchell, Mary: 100 Acres – Wakelin, Richard: Surveyed 18 April 1680 for Richard Wakelin at a bound White Oak by a deep branch near the plantation of Edward Knight ; Conveyance notes – 100 Acres – Elizabeth Noble from William White & Mary; 28 March 1719, 50 Acres – Richard Wainwright from Absalom Thosne (?); 10 March 1729.  This tax record would seem to reinforce the notion that Green Chance [aka Chase] had been reconveyed from Thomas Mitchell to Richard Wakelyne.  The confusing part of this tax record is the suggestion that someone named Mary Mitchell was then in possession of 100 acres (moiety) of that tract sometime before 1753.  Given these tidbits, it seems more likely that Thomas Mitchell retained 100 acres, which devolved to his widow.

f.          5Sep1760:  At the request of John Posey the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 11Jun1760 between Thomas Mitchell of Charles County in the Province of Maryland, planter, of the one part, and John Posey of the same, planter, of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Thomas Mitchell, for and in consideration of the sum of 5,000 lbt to him in hand paid, sold all that moiety or half of that parcel or tract of land lying in Charles County called Green Chase, situate, lying and being at Nanjemoy, abutting Edward Knight… containing 200 acres… No dower relinquished.  [DB Liber G 3, Folio 453-5]  This record would seem to support the notion that Thomas Mitchell retained ownership of one half or moiety of Green Chase [aka Chance] and that title to that tract remained in the Mitchell family until this conveyance in Sep1760 to John Posey.  This fact reinforces the likelihood that the Mary Mitchell shown in the tax rolls was the widow of Thomas Mitchell [Sr.].  The identity of the Thomas Mitchell shown conveying this tract to John Posey is uncertain at this point, but almost certainly directly descended from the original Thomas Mitchell (henceforth Thomas Mitchell Sr.) of Charles County.

There are several issues setforth by the foregoing court records pertaining to Thomas Mitchell Sr. and Richard Wakelin, which warrant our attention.  First, we have a request to the Sheriff in Nov-Dec1682 by Richard Wakelin demanding the “arrest” of Thomas Mitchell.  There is nothing in the record abstract to suggest the reason for the Sheriff taking Thomas Mitchell into custody.  Usually such action was the result of failure to pay a debt or for trespass.  Just three months later we have the recordation of the indenture between Richard Wakelin and his wife, Mary, conveying to Thomas Mitchell [Sr.] the tract of land called Green Chase containing 200 acres, located at Nanjemoy.  Then on 16Mar1687/8 we have a patent filing by Richard Wakelin for a 200 acre tract called Green Chance.  And, finally, we have a rent roll which records a tract of land called Green Chance containing 200 acres: 100 acres in possession of Mary Mitchell, and 100 acres in possession of Richard Wakelin.  This sequence of records seem to raise doubt as to whether Richard Wakelin had patents for two separate tracts of land: one called Green Chase, and another called Green Chance, or whether they were the same tract.  The fact that Mary Mitchell (presumed widow of Thomas Mitchell Sr.) was in possession of 100 acres of Green Chance would seem to suggest that there was only one tract of 200, which variously was called Green Chase and Green Chance, and that Thomas Mitchell Sr. retained possession of a moiety of that tract.

7.         4Jul1683:  Thomas Mitchell registered cattle and hog marks.  [Liber l, Folio 109].  This cattle mark filing was almost certainly for the same person reported in the preceding records, i.e., Thomas Mitchell Sr.

8.         21Feb1684/5:  In a certain action between Thomas Mitchell vs. Edward Abbott and Thomas Craxoy… [Liber L, Folio 146].  Ditto.

9.         9Mar1684:  Edward Abbott 9.194 I CH £11.15.9 Mar 4 1684 cites items in the possession of Thomas Mitchell. Appraisers: Michaell Minok, John Boswell (who died before the inventory was probated).

10.       Dec1685:  Thomas Mitchell, administrator of Edward Abbott, exhibited his account of the goods and chattels of the said Edward.  Ordered that whereas the said account was appraised in money, the said administrator be allowed in tobacco…  [Liber M, Folio 88].  Ditto.

11.       6Apr1687:  Charles County Circuit Court Liber N, Page 206; 6 Apr 1687; Deeds of Gifts of household goods and cattle from George Pouncy to the children of his wife Mary Pouncy to be rec’d immediately after her death: to Mathew Boswell, John Boswell, Mary Boswell, Martha Boswell, Michell Boswell, William Boswell; /s/ George Pouncy (mark); wit. Thomas Mitchell, William Hall.  Marie Pouncey is believed to have been the widow of John Bozwell.

12.       10Mar1690:  This Indenture between George Austry of Stafford County VA of the one part, and Thomas Mitchell of Charles County MD, planter, of the other part, for 5,000 lbt, sold a tract of land Abberdeen, being taken up by one Alexander Gallant, late of Charles County, and by him conveyed to George Austry, such conveyance of record in Charles County, lying in Charles County, and beginning  at a bounded white oak on the west side of a small branch near John Wheelers land called Exeter… near the main fresh of Piscataway, containing 100 acres… also, all that tract called Maidstone, lying in Charles County, beginning at a bounded hickory tree, abutting a tract called Abberdeen… containing 100 acres… Wit.: George Godfrey and William Frost. [Liber R, Folio 338-9].  From this indenture we learn that Thomas Mitchell Sr. acquired two additional tracts of land called “Abberdeen” and “Maidstone”, each containing 100 acres, and abutting Exeter, owned by Maj. John Wheeler.  These tracts are believed to have been situated along the south side of Piscataway Creek in an area that would later fall within Prince Georges County on its formation in Apr1696.  Following are abstracts of the original patents:

a.         1Aug1672:  Patent Liber 17, Folio 257:  Aberdeen (100 acres): Charles County beginning at a bounded Oak on the west side of John Wheeler’s tract of land called Exeter.  Also ajoins George Austrey’s tract called Maidstone and Ignatius Wheeler’s tract called The Indian Field.

b.         18Aug1674:  Patent Liber 15, Folio 295:  Maidstone (100 acres):  Charles County beginning at a bounded Hickory of Alexander Gallant’s tract called Aberdeene.  Other persons mentioned: Lands rights assigned by Alexander Gallant due him for transporting himself and Richard Parker into the Province hereto inhabit as appears in the record.

13.       10Nov1691:  A jury of our sovereign… on the information of John Allwood, who was appointed one of said overseers for the … highway within the proximity of Portobacco Hundred, within said County, upon their oath do present Thomas Mitchell, late of Portobacco Hundred, aforesaid, planter, for refusing to send help or assist…  [Liber R, Folio 273].  This court filing suggests that Thomas Mitchell owned land in 1691 or previously in the vicinity of Portobacco (possibly Green Chase), and that he had failed to comply with a request to commit hands to work on a “highway” in that area.  He is recorded as “late of Portobacco Hundred”.  This suggests that he may have removed himself from that area.  Given that he was recorded as acquiring two tracts of land in Mar1690 at Piscataway, it is entirely possible that he may have moved from Nanjemoy area to Piscataway within the recent past.

14.       12Jan1691/2:  Whereas it was commanded the sheriff that he cause to come here this day, that is to say, the 12 day of January before their majority of Justices for Charles County, Thomas Mitchell, late of this County, planter, for refusing to send help to assist … with highway… the said Thomas Mitchell appearing now this day and his reasons and allegations by said Court here being heard and understood, which by said Court being thought sufficient.  It is ordered that the said presentment be dismissed and that the said Thomas Mitchell be thereof acquitted.  [Liber R, Folio 337].  Apparently, Thomas Mitchell appeared in court on 12Jan1691/2 in response to the earlier filing re: his failure to respond to the request from an overseer of roads, and that his explanation for his non-compliance was found acceptable by the court.

15.       8Mar1691/2:  Anne Thomas petitioning the Court for the freedom of her daughter, Elizabeth Thomas, Thomas Mitchell, her master produced here in Court this ensuing writing to testify how long she was to serve him.  “Know all men by these presents that Anne Thomas of Charles County, widow, for diverse good causes and considerations ____ not mentioned have granted consent that my child, Elizabeth Thomas shall live with and serve Thomas Mitchell and Mary, his wife, until she doth come of age, she being at this present 8 years old, the said Thomas and Mary, his wife …dated 10Feb1684.  Wit.: John Guyott and Anne Thompson.  [Liber R, Folio 372].  This court record refers to an indenture between Anne Thomas and Thomas Mitchell, and his wife, Mary, dated 10Feb1684, for the service of Anne’s daughter, Elizabeth Thomas, who was eight years old at the outset.  This was the earliest record found in which the name of Thomas Mitchell’s wife was given.  Some researchers claim that Mary Mitchell was born Mary Wheeler, daughter of Thomas Wheeler.  That seems a biological impossibility, as Thomas Wheeler was not born until 1660.  There were intermarriages between Mitchells and Wheelers which will be documented later in this chapter.

16.       1692:  Thomas Mitchell sued Richard Marshall, both of Charles County, for debt amounting to 340 lbt… William Dent, Mitchell’s attorney… [Liber R, Folio 405].  Thomas Mitchell sued for minor debt.

17.       1692:  Thomas Mitchell sued Stephen Mankin, both of Charles County, for debt owed at Portobacco amounting to 450 lbt. [Liber R, Folio 448].  If Thomas Mitchell had moved to the Piscataway area, this may have been a lingering debt incurred while he lived at Portobacco.  Stephen Mankind is on record as having received a patent of 65 acres called “Mankind’s Adventure” on 12Jun1688.  Mankind’s Adventure abutted a tract originally patented to Nicholas Causine for 1000 acres called Causine Manor, which was situated on the north side of the Potomac River near the mouth of Portobacco Creek.  FWIW: Maj. John Wheeler is believed by the author to have married Mary Causine, daughter of Nicholas Causine.  (More to follow).

18.       Liber R, Folio 405, 451, 497 and 530: various suits involving Thomas Mitchell Sr. and debts.  Ditto.

19.       Jan. 25, 1693/4 – The Charles Co., Md. will of John Lambert, probated Feb. 7, 1693/4, leaves personalty to Elizabeth, dau. of John Gourley, Prudence, dau. of Nicholas Cooper, and John Smoot [Janey Smoot]. Thomas Witchell [sic; Mitchell] of Port Tobacco and William Dent of Nanjemy are named joint executors and residuary legatees of Lambert’s real and personal estate.  Source: Maryland Calendar of Wills, Vol. 2, Page 53.  Comment: Newman’s “The Flowering of the Maryland Palatinate” at Page 315 states that: Elizabeth and Prudence were John’s god-daughters; –the third bequest of personalty was to “Janey” Smoot; –Thomas Mitchell and William Dent were Lambert’s two friends.

Also,

1695 – James [sic; John] Lambeth [sic; Lambert] 13B.57 A CH (1695)  Payments to: Hugh Perry, George Delehay, John Barker, John Banister, Owen Dehortee, John Banks, Philip Lynes, Jos. Harrisson, Humphry Warren.  List of debts: Francis Harrisson, Daniell Yates, Hugh Perry, James Ashbrock, Nehemiah Cooper, Col. Warren, Dr. Hall.  Executors: Thomas Mickell [sic; Mitchell], William Dent.

This may be a particularly important record for affixing the presumed locale of Thomas Mitchell Sr.’s area of operation and perhaps the identity of his wife.  For starters it should be noted that Thomas Mitchell was identified as being of Portobacco.  Heretofore we had identified Thomas Mitchell as having been in possession of only three tracts of land: Green Chase at Nanjemoy, and Aberdeen and Maidstone on south side of Piscataway.  This record would seem to imply that he was perceived in 1695 as having been in residence in the vicinity of Portobacco.  Such locale is supported by the fact that John Lambert had been in possession of two patents called Hoggs Quarter and Nonesuch abutting Thomas Stone’s Pointon Manor.  Pointon Manor was originally granted to William Stone (former Governor of Maryland) for 5000 acres situated on the north side of Nanjemoy Creek.  Later we will discover that Thomas Mitchell appears to have swapped his two tracts near Piscataway for a tract called Lampton’s Resurvey.  It may have been that land swap (with is presumed father-in-law, Mark Lampton), which caused Thomas Mitchell to have been affiliated with Portobacco Hundred in 1693/4 as contrasted to Nanjemoy.

20.       1695 – The St. Mary’s Co., Md. inventory of William Rosewell shows Thomas Mitchell on Rosewell’s list of debts.  Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Inventories & Accounts, Liber 13B, pp. 126-132.  This estate record which shows Thomas Mitchell as a debtor was filed in St. Marys County.  William Roswell must have been one of the most active merchants in the region as his list of debtors contains more than 750 persons, including Thomas Mitchell, Edward Mitchell (probable son of William Mitchell of South River), Thomas Wheeler and Ignatius Wheeler (sons of Maj. James Wheeler).  Even though this estate record is from St. Mary’s County, there is virtually no doubt that this was Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy.

21.       July 1695 – The St. Mary’s Co., Md. inventory of Nehemiah Blakiston shows Thomas Mitchell on Blakiston’s list of debts.  Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Inventories & Accounts, Liber 10, Page 403.  Ditto.

22.       Sep 28 1697:  Col. Edward Pye 15.240 I £16.17.0.  The amount of the inventory also included #30082.  Appraisers: Henry Wharton, Edward Digges.  List of debts: Thomas Davis, John Clements, Samuell Luckett, Richard Edelen, Thomas Mitchell, Cornelius Maddox, Thomas Jenkins, Col. Diggs, Robert Thompson, Capt. Philip Hoskins, Robert Merrifield, John Wincole, Thomas Smoote, Jeremia Suell, William Burley, Mr. Henry Hawkins, Walter Poore, Christopher Wickmore, David Pue [Pew], Dr. Hall, Mrs. Causon [probably widow of Ignatius Causine], John Smith, Moses Jones, John Anderson Richard Hubert, Patrick Maggatee, Dr, Burch, Mr. Roger Brookes, Mr. Benjamin Hall, Mr. William Boarman, Jr., Mr. John Hanson, Maj. Smallwood.  Thomas Mitchell was listed as a debtor on the estate inventory of Colonel Edward Pye.  FWIW:  Col. Edward Pye married the widow of Colonel Benjamin Rozer, Anne Sewell.

23.       Oct. 1697 – The Charles Co., Md. inventory of Col. William Diggs was approved at Pangaja by Francis Green and Thomas Mitchell.  Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Inventories & Accounts, Liber 15, Page 318.  Colonel William Diggs, son of the former Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, Edward Diggs, was married to Elizabeth Sewell, daughter of Dr. Henry Sewell, as her 2nd husband.  Francis Green is believed to have been a son of Thomas Green, former Governor of the Province of Maryland.  So, within this single estate record we appear to have the interaction of Thomas Mitchell of Portobacco with the sons of two former colonial governors.  Col. William Diggs had extensive land holdings at his death, including tracts in both Maryland and Virginia, his place of birth having been at Bellfield in York County VA.  The cited estate inventory was separated into several segments, with Francis Green and Thomas Mitchell being responsible for property within the vicinity of old Pangiah Manor, which spanned between Mattawoman (St. Thomas) and Portobacco.  By the author’s reconning, Thomas Mitchell may have been about 50 years old in 1697.

24.       June 1698 – The Charles Co., Md. administration account of William Hall shows that Hall’s estate made a payment to Thomas Mitchell.  Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Inventories & Accounts, Liber 16, Page 93.  The earliest record found of a William Hall in Maryland was when Thomas Westin claimed a headright for having transported William Hall in 1640, and an additional 50 acres for rights assigned by George Pye.  No further records were found for William Hall in Maryland until the following abstracts starting around 1660:

a.         Feb1660/1:  Let it be Enquired for the Lord Proprietary whether John Jenkins Hugh Neile William Heard Henry Peere Richard Morris William Smoote John Courts James Walker William Hall, William Crayford Thomas Jaruis Thomas Lomax and John Morris contrary to the fidellity to his Lops due not hauing the feare of God before their Eyes, and by Instigacon of the deuell, mutinously and seditiously Contrary to the Acte of Assembly in that case provided within this Province at the howse of Josias Fendall in Charles County vpon the Eighth and nynth dayes of February 1660 agt the pson of his Lops Gouernor his gouernmt & guards provided for the safety thereof did wth force attempt tht is to say vpon the 8th day of Feb. aforesaid at the howse of Josias Fendall aforesaid, in the County aforesaid in Armes did appeare, and upon the ninth day of February to rescue the psons of Josias Fendall and John Hatch then Prisoners for mutiny and Sedicon and under a guard did march in greate derroga- con from the just power of his Lop and the Subversion of the Government of this Province and Contrary to the peace of his said Lop. his rule and dominion.  In Feb1660/1 it would appear that a William Hall along with William Smoot and James Walker, etal. were arraigned on charges of having attempted the release from custody of Josias Fendall and John Hatch.  From earlier records we learned that Josias Fendall, John Hatch, William Smoot and James Walker were all near neighbors of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen.  Josias Fendall, former Governor, had been arrested and imprisoned after his failed attempt to put down a perceived Puritan rebellion along the Severn [aka Fendall’s Rebellion].  Josias Fendall was the son-in-law of John Hatch, having married Mary Hatch.

b.         Apr1661:  Know all men by thees Presents that I Andrew Watson of Charleses County in the Prouince of Mariland Planter doe engage mee my heirs Executors Administrators that Richard trew of the same County boatright shall acknowledg in open Court a firme bill of sayle for one hundered and fifty acres of land lung in Nangemy and ioyning to the sayd Richard Trews Plantation which hee is now.  The Plantiues Charge Vizt to his going with the witneses to haue them sworne, to Mr Bouls sworne be for too Commissioners, to Daniell Wind John Neuill William hall each 90, to Zara bouls alias duglas Elenor Morris each 90, to Richard Watson & William Price each 90, to the Sheriff seruing nine subpenes, to Edmond Lendsey sworne at the Prouinciall Court, to Robert Robins Comming to ditto Court and atten…Apparently William Hall was exonerated from the charges associated with the attempted freeing of Josias Fendall, as he was just three months later a witness at Court for which time he was paid 90 lbt.

c.         Jun1663:  Whearupon the Court put it to a Jury whose name are as followeth Daniell Johnson Robert Taylor William heard William Hall James Mackey Francis Batchelor Richard Dod John Wheeler Thomas hus sey Gils Tomkins John Tomkinson John Neuill   Daniell Johnson beeing Chosen thear forman hee and the Rest of the Jury beeing sworne had the precedent oaths deliuered unto them with thees instructions from the board.  William Hall, John Wheeler, John Neville, etal. served as jurors in Jun 1663,

d.         6Apr1664:  Willm Hall aged 29 yeares or thereabouts Sworne & Examined in a difference depending betweene Robert Robins and Richard Dod in an accon of the Case of trouer and Conuersion sayth, about 3 yeares agoe this last Summer about Cyder time which hee thinkes was about the last of July or the beginning of August being att John Neuills howse hee the said deponant going homewards did see a Mare by the fence of Thomas Bakers which was Called Robert Robins Mare and afterwards hee the said deponant did see the same Mare by Capt Jenkinses plantaton wth other Mares of W Prescotts about 2 or 3 monthes after the time which hee did first see her and uide folio  further sayth not—  Apr1664 William Hall (aged 29) was deposed in a case involving property theft by Robert Robins.

e.         1665:  William Hall immigrated 1665 as shown at 7:605 of the Patent Records. We know this is the same William Hall who made his will Mar. 28, 1666 because his will leaves Ann Cage the same servant he is shown as having transported at 7:605. If William Hall was only in Md. 1665-6 then Ann Cage who was a married adult in 1666 was not his dau.  This record is obviously incorrect as it pertains to the date by which William Hall was transported into the Province.  From the earlier reported records, William Hall was clearly in Maryland as early as 1660, when he would have been aged about 24 years old.  The most significant element of this record is the fact that William Hall was credited with transporting Ann Cage.

f.          May 31, 1666 – Will (of William Hall) proved. John Cage (Charles Co.) was granted administration. Surety: Walter Beane. Appraisers: John Courts, Richard Morrice. Walter Beane to administer oath. Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Testamentary Proceedings, Liber 1F, pp. 95-97.  June 9, 1666 – Inventory of William Hall (planter, St. Mary’s Co.) at house of John Cager [sic]. Appraisers: John Courts, Robert Morris. Mr. Walter Beane administered the oath. Servant: John Rowse. List of debts: John Smith, Humprey Warren, Thomas Simpson, Samuel Clarke, John Dowglas, Thomas Smoote, Robert Henley, John Pitts. Date filed: Sep. 1, 1666. Additional inventory. Source: Maryland Prerogative Court, Testamentary Proceedings, Liber 2, pp. 44-5  It appears that this William Hall had died prior to May1666.  His estate was administered by John Cage, believed to have been the same person to whom Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen sold land.  It seems probable that Ann Cage was the wife of John Cage, and very possibly a sister of William Hall.

g.         28Jan1696/7:  In the name of God, amen, I, William Hall, Chirgeon, born in the City of Chichester, County of Sussex in the Kingdom of England, second son of William Hall of the said City and Kingdon, but now of Charles County in the Province of Maryland, being very sick and weak of body but of good sense and memory, thanks be to Almighty God for his great mercy, I do by this present writing make my last will and testament in manner and form as followeth:  In first place I bequeath my soul to Almighty God that gave it me and mybody to be  decently buried at the discretion of my loving wife and the rest of my loving friends, hoping in God to have everlasting rest in my dear Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ;  I give unto my dear and loving wife, Mary Hall one house and garden situated and being in the City of Chichester, situated and being bounded on the north with a Malt House, on the east with the North Street, on the south with a house of Alderman Berry, and on the West with part of the gardens of the said Alderman Berry’s, with all the appurtenances and edifices thereunto belonging unto my said wife, Mary Hall during her natural life, and after her decease I give the said house and garden with all their rights and properties thereunto belonging unto my two sons: John Hall and William Hall, to them and their heirs forever.  I do by this present writing make void and of none effect all former wills and this to be my last will and testament and to remain in full force, strength and virtue.  I do constitute and appoint my loving wife, Mary Hall to be my whole and sole Executrix of all my personal and real estate which God hath been graciously disposed to bestow upon me.  In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 28Jan1696/7.  Signed William Hall.  Wit.: Richard Sowter, John Bayne and Hugh Bars?  Richard Boughton, Deputy Commissary.  The foregoing LWT of William Hall was transcribed by the author from Wills, Vol 4-10, 1670, 1676-1679, 1682-1700 at Ancestry.com.   This is believed to have been the same person whose estate administration reported a payment to Thomas Mitchell in Jun1698.  No other records could be identified directly associated with this William Hall.  From his Will, he appears to have fairly recently arrived in Charles County from Chichester, Sussex, England.  Whether there may have been any connection between this William Hall and the William Hall recorded in the Pickawaxen area in the 1660’s is unknown.  FWIW:  Capt. William Mitchell purportedly was from Chichester.

25.       Mr. Thomas Mitchell 19-1/2B.139 I £18.14.0 May 4 1700.  Appraisers: Francis Green, Andrew Simpson.  This is believed to have been the estate appraisal record for Thomas Mitchell of Portobacco, who apparently died intestate sometime between Jun1698 and May1700, say 1699/00. 

26.       Thomas Mitchell 11B.53 A CH £18.14.0 Jun 14 1700.  Received from: Edward Marlow.  Payments to: Mark Lampton, William Hutchinson.  Administratrix: Mary Mitchell (relict).  It is assumed that Mary Mitchell was the widow of Thomas Mitchell, and the same person referenced in Item No. 13, above.  Some researchers have interpreted the wording of the indenture between Thomas Mitchell and Ann Thomas to imply that Mary and Thomas had been married since the effective date of that indenture, i.e., 10Feb1684.  That seems highly unlikely, as Thomas Mitchell’s wife is of good foundation identified as Mary Lampton, daughter of Mark Lampton, born on 24Jan1678 as noted below.  At best, we can reasonably assume that Thomas and Mary were married on or before 8Mar1691/2, by which date Mary Lampton would have been only 13 years old.  This would have been a rather young age for Mary Lampton to be marrying, but not impossible.  One other possibility seems to be that Thomas Mitchell may have been married to two different women, both of whom were named “Mary”.

a.         County Circuit Court, Birth, Deaths & Marriage Records, Liber Q Lampton, Mary, d/o Marke and Elizabeth Lampton of the head of Portobacco Creek, b. 24 Jan 1678/9

We have now completed presentation of the records believed to have been associated with Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy.  This would be a good point in our investigation to recap this information and to place this Thomas Mitchell into perspective with the Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen.  The earliest record that could be located for Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy was when he appeared as a co-commissioner along with James Wheeler, etal. on 25Nov1679 (Item No. 1, above).  Prior to that record, there had been a gap of almost 15 years from the previous known record associated with Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen, when his apparent son, Thomas Mitchell Jr. reported missing hogs in 1664.  There was a warrant filing by a Thomas Mitchell for 150 acres in 1666, but that person could not be identified with any certainty, nor could any patent be associated with that filing.  The only other record that could be located for a Thomas Mitchell during this 15-year record gap was in a claim filed by Capt. William Burgess on 25Sep1674 for a 550 acre grant based on the transport of eleven persons, including someone named Thomas Mitchell.  Given the known associations between Capt. William Burgess and the family of William Mitchell of South River, it seems entirely possible that the Thomas Mitchell transported by Capt. William Burgess could have been the person currently being analyzed as Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy.

Sherrie Mitchell Boone and Richard Kozeny would have us believe that Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy was descended from Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen, possibly a son.  That connection may be possible, but we are left to ponder the almost 15-year gap in the records.  Given the relatively high frequency of records pertaining to Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy, it is difficult to comprehend how he could have been present in Maryland between 1664 and 1679 and not have been captured in some record.  If we are to accept the purported linkage between these two Thomas Mitchells as father and son, we almost inevitably must accept that Thomas Mitchell Jr. must have left the Province of Maryland for an extended period, and then returned almost 15 years later.  Is that a reasonable conclusion?

Then we have the peculiar absence of any reference in the records of Joan Mitchell, relic of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen, to a son named Thomas.  In a gift deed dated 23Mar1676 Joan Mitchell (widow) conveyed her entire personal estate to someone named Thomas Wells, excepting a cow given to Johanna Philpott.  If Joan Mitchell had a living son in 1676, it seems only reasonable to assume that she might have shared part of her meager estate with that son.  Absent any reference to a son of Joan Mitchell in the disposal of her property, the author is inclined to believe that her son, Thomas Mitchell Jr. probably had died sometime before 1676.  It cannot be discounted that Thomas Mitchell Jr. could have had a son named Thomas Mitchell [III], who could have been reared by either his grandmother (Joan Mitchell), or by his unknown mother’ family, but there is absolutely no record evidence to support that possibility.  All things considered, the author is inclined to believe that Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy was the person named as a transportee of Capt. William Burgess in Sep1674.  If we accept that conclusion, then we are still lacking any evidence of his ancestry, excpt the probability that he was a close kinsman of William Mitchell of South River, possibly 1st cousin.

This Thomas Mitchell was found to have acquired only three tracts of land during his lifetime:  Green Chase at Nanjemoy, and Maidstone and Abberdeen situated on the south side of Piscataway Creek adjoining Exeter owned by Maj. John Wheeler.  Per the LWT of Mark Lampton abstracted below, Thomas Mitchell appears to have swapped land containing 200 acres for an unidentified tract owned by Lampton. 

1.        Nov. 3, 1701 – The Anne Arundel Co., Md. [but all estate records are in Charles Co., Md.] will of Mary [sic; Mark] Lampton, probated Jan. 1, 1701/2, leaves: –to sons William and John jointly, 200 acres (unnamed) near Piscataway, obtained from Thomas Mitchell by exchange for certain land (unnamed.)  Said sons to ratify the exchange. –to daughters Victory, Ann, Elizabeth, Isabell and Sarah, personalty; the first named at 16 years of age to have certain personalty which belonged to her mother, deceased. –son Mark, executor and residuary legatee, and to have charge of children aforesaid during minority.  Witnesses: Mary Mitchell, Isabell Breeding, Richard Harrison.  Source: Maryland Calendar of Wills, Vol. 2, pp. 234-5.  Comment: The oldest child of Mark Lampton was dau. Mary Lampton, b. Jan. 24, 1678/9 at the head of Port Tobacco Creek in Charles Co. Source: Charles Co., Md. Circuit Court, Liber P, Page 206 and Liber Q, Page 6. 

Since Mary Mitchell and her descendants appear to have retained possession of Green Chase as late as the 1760’s, it seems probable that the land swapped by Thomas Mitchell was the two tracts (Abberdeen and Maidstone) at Piscataway.  Also, since the trailing records for Thomas Mitchell appear to have been mainly associated with the Nanjemoy-Portobacco area, it seems probable that the tract swapped by Mark Lampton would have been located in that same area, possibly Lampton Resurvey abstracted as follows:

2.         5Oct1685:  NS2i/34 SR7371:  Resurveyed for Mark Lampton, 150 acres called Lampton Resurvey located in Charles County on the west side of Portobacco (aka St. Thomas) Creek beginning at a bound Oak of Benjamin Rozer’s tract of land called St. Patrick’s Hill. Note: The tract was originally surveyed for Garrett Sinnott and sold by him to Matthew Sanders.  Lampton purchased the tract from Sanders and requested resurvey to correct an error in the earlier survey.

Thomas Mitchell clearly was an upstanding and respected member of his community, having been appointed Constable, juror, estate appraiser, and both creditor and debtor.  He was referenced in several records as having been a “planter”.  In his waning years he is found in association with some of the most illustrious residents of his neighborhood, including Fancis Green (son of former Governor, Thomas Green), Col. William Diggs (son of Edward Diggs, former Governor of Virginia), Col. Benjamin Rozer and Col. Edward Pye.  Following the death of Thomas Mitchell [henceforth Sr.] in about 1699/0, there are trailing records for his presumed widow, Mary Lampton-Mitchell and their presumed son, Thomas Mitchell Jr. listed as follows:

1.         2 Feb 1702:  Charles County Maryland Land Records, Liber Z, Page 42.  Recorded at request of Notley Rozer:; Indenture from Notley Rozer, Gent., to Edward Diggs and Anthony Neale, Gent., trustees for Jane Diggs, d/o Elizabeth, now wife of Notley Rozer; according to premarital bond between Notley and Elizabeth Digges on 16 Apr last past; land formerly called Duddington Manor on the east side of Anacostia River in St. Thomas Bay; containing 1,000 acres; patent granted Thomas Notley, Gent., 1 Mar 1671 (WT-473); 500 acres of afsd. land now called Troy, bounded by Duddington Manor; also 300 acres formerly called Duddington Pasture on the east side of Anacostia River in St. Thomas Bay; total 1,800 acres called Cerne Abby Manor with all advantages to manors in England; /s/ Notley Rozer; wit. Charles Pye, Mary Diggs, Mary Mitchell; ack. 11 Aug 1703 by Notley Rozer.  The fact that Mary Mitchell (relic of Thomas Mitchell Sr.) would have been called on to witness this indenture between Notley Rozer (son of Benjamin Rozer, and husband of Jane Diggs, daughter of William Diggs and Elizabeth Sewell) and Edward Diggs (son of William Diggs and Elizabeth Sewell), and Anthony Neale (son of James Neale and husband of Elizabeth Roswell), indicates that Mary still resided in the vicinity of Poynton Manor, probably on Green Chase or Lampton Resurvey.

2.         14 Jan 1708/9; William Dolton registers cattle mark Recorded at request of Samuell Hanson: 19 Nov 1708; Quit Claim from John Warren, Gent., to Samll. Hanson and his wife, extx. of Benjamin Warren, Gent., dec’d; land late in the possession of Benjamin Warren, dec’d, bro. of John Warren; 190 acres part of a tract called The Hills containing a total of 240 acres; bounded by Humphrey Attwicks, Thomas Mitchell, Wicomico Field now possessed by Thomas Read; /s/ John Warren; wit. Wm. Herbert, Robert Yates, Thomas Coart; 19 Nov 1708 John Warren ack. deed for 190 acres to Samuel Hanson and his wife Elizabeth for the life of sd. Elizabeth.  This record has been included at this juncture, more because of its chronological relevance than any specific connection to Mary Mitchell or her descendants.  Clearly, this quit claim pertained to land situated in the old Pickawaxen Hundred and was still referring to lands owned by Humphrey Attwicks and Thomas Mitchell, almost 50 years after the presumed death of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen.  Does the fact that the land previously owned by Thomas Mitchell at the southern tip of Pickawaxen was still being reported in 1708 imply that that land may still have been in possession of a descendant in 1708?  No further references to Thomas Mitchell’s Pickawaxen holdings were found (no deed of conveyance, no estate record, nothing).  Joan Mitchell, who probably would have been the heir at law following the death of her husband, presumably would have been found by the Court to be legally possessed of his estate, but no estate records have been found.  So, we cannot state with any certainty, exactly who may have held title to Thomas Mitchell’s old land at Pickawaxen in 1708.

3.         Sep 1 1715:  Col. William Diggs 36C.44 A CH E722.11.7 £798.8.7.  Received from: Gilbert Clarke, Richard Keen, Joshua Holdsworth, William Dixon, Nicholas Low, Thomas Tench, Esq.  Payments to: Francis Swales, Ann Duckworth, Gerard Sly on account of Elisabeth Baker, Michaell Curtis, Dr. M. Moore, [probably Dr. Mordecai Moore, husband of Ursula [Painter?], widow of Capt. William Burgess]  William Twisden, James Cox, Mr. Charles Carroll, William Dent, Thomas Bowling, William Guither, James Browner, Col. William Whittington, Thomas Mitchell, Thomas Nation. Richard Iles, Robert Yakes [Yates], William Dent, William Herbert, John Freeman, Mr. William Bladen, Lady Bawdon, Maj. William Dent, Col. Henry Low, Charles Carroll.  Executors: Mrs. Elisabeth Diggs, Mr. Edward Diggs. Accounts filed by Mr. William Diggs (brother & executor of Edward Diggs (surviving executor)) of Prince George’s County.  Although this record is dated1Sep1715, it almost certainly pertained to the estate settlement for Col. William Diggs, who died sometime around 1697.  Consequently, this listing probably was in reference to Thomas Mitchell Sr., and not his presumed son.

4.         19May1718:  Coleman, Richard, planter, Charles County, 19th May, 1718; 27th June, 1718, To Elizabeth Osborne (wife of Thomas Osborne, smith), personalty. To Thomas Mitchell and Archibald Johnstone, joint exs., residue of estate, equally, Test: Joseph Clemment, Rhafele Clement. 14. 666.  This almost certainly was a reference to Thomas Mitchell Jr., son of Thomas Mitchell Sr. (of Nanjemoy).  Refer to the following abstracted affidavit sworn in Court on 1Jan1754:

a)         1Jan1754:  MITCHELL, Thos, age 66, 1 Jan. 1754 [born 1688 by calculation]; CHLR D#3 48:236

From the foregoing affidavit we can estimate Thomas Mitchell Jr.’s birth year at about 1688.  That being the case, we can stipulate with some certainty that he was not the son of Mary Lampton, but rather of an earlier unknown wife of Thomas Mitchell Sr.  That being the case, then we can also state with some certainty that this was the earliest known recorded instance of a son of Thomas Mitchell Sr., whom we will henceforth refer to as Thomas Mitchell Jr.  Given the following land record abstract, we can also state that Thomas Mitchell Jr.’s co-Executor, Archibald Johnston, probably resided in very close proximity to the west side of upper Portobacco Creek:

b)         25Mar1724:  Charles County, Maryland Liber L#2, Page 139.  At the request of Archibald Johnson, the following deed was recorded May 8, 1724.  Mar 25, 1724 from Basil Warring of Prince Georges County, gent, to Archibald Johnson of CC, planter, for 600 lbs of tobacco and for divers other good causes, all that tract of land called Litchfield, lying in CC upon the south side of Wheelers Branch & joining with a piece of land called Planters Delight. Signed – Basil Waring. Wit – James Stoddert*, Thos Brooke Jr.

After completion of our presentation of records pertaining to Thomas Mitchell Jr. and his immediate family, we will make a thorough presentation of the family of Maj. John Wheeler.  Suffice it to say at this juncture that Thomas Mitchell Jr. is believed to have married Ann Wheeler, daughter of Thomas Wheeler, and granddaughter of Maj. John Wheeler.  During his lifetime Maj. John Wheeler acquired more than a dozen tracts of land in upper Charles County, much of which was along Piscataway Creek and would later fall within Prince Georges County on its formation in 1696.  From the foregoing deed abstract it is shown that Archibald Johnson acquired Litchfield, which adjoined Planters Delight, a 600 acre grant patented by John Wheeler in 1663.  The location of Planters Delight is expressed in the following Rent Roll record abstract:

c)         1642-1753 Rent Rolls Charles County MD Hundred – Nanjemoy or Durham Parish: Rent Roll page/Sequence: 335-11: PLANTERS DELIGHT: 600 acres; Possession of – 600 Acres – Mills, Peter: Surveyed 22 Aug 1654 for George Thompson up the West side of the fresh run of the Easternmost branch of Nanjemoy Creek.: Conveyance notes – possessed by Peter Mills who married the relict of Ignatius Wheeler.  From this rent roll abstract is it shown that Planters Delight was situated on easternmost branch of Nanjemoy Creek, which would place it nearby to Poynton Manor.

5.         1May1734:  Wheeler, Richard, Charles County, 1st Apr., 1734; 1st May, 1734. To Kindrick Bayne, dwelling plantation and 17 A. adjoining for her use until son Richard comes to age of 18. To son Thomas, 20 A. and the mill on sd. land; Kindrick Bane to have 500 lbs. tob. yearly until afsd. Thomas arrives at age of 18. Thomas Mitchell to be paid 500 lbs. tob. yearly for education of sons Richard and Thomas till they arrive at age of 18. To dau. Elizabeth Brawner, dau. Martha, dau. Mary Madox, dau. Anne Ellder, personalty.  To sons Richard and Thomas and dau. Annastasia Kean, 1/2 of personal estate, other 1/2 to Kindrick Bane and her child. Should Ebsworth Bayne come to molest or take any part or parcel thereof, Patrick Connelly is empowered to secure the afsd. estate to sd, Kindrick and her children.  Ex.: Thomas Mitchell.  Test: William Nelson, Charity Smallwood, Ignatius Mitchell. MCW 21.57.  Richard Wheeler (1683-1734) was a son of Thomas Wheeler, and brother-in-law of Thomas Mitchell Jr., who was named the Executor of Richard Wheeler’s estate.  By this LWT, Thomas Mitchell was made guardian of Richard Wheeler and Thomas Wheeler, the minor sons of Richard Wheeler, testator.  It is important to note that Ingatius Mtichell, presumed son of Thomas Mitchell Jr., witnessed this Will.  Also, note that Charity Smallwood (future wife of Thomas Mitchell III) also was a witness to the Will.   More on Richard Wheeler in the Wheeler Family section to follow.

6.         6Jul1734:  At the request of Ignatius Mitchell and Thomas Mitchell Jr. of Charles County the following deed was recorded:  “Know all men by the presents that I Thomas Wheeler of Charles County, planter, for and in consideration of the sincere love and affection that I bear unto my two grandsons: Ignatius Mitchell and Thomas Mitchell Jr., sons of Thomas Mitchell of this County, planter, and for several other weighty reasons, me thereunto moving hath given, granted, aliened… and set over unto the said Ignatius Mitchell and Thomas Mitchell Jr. all that tract or tracts, parcel or parcels of land lying and being in Charles County… one moiety thereof to Ignatius Mitchell and one moiety to Thomas Mitchell Jr…  Wit.: Joshua Allford, Joseph Mitchell, and Martha Wheeler.” [DB Liber O-2, Folio 48]  This deed of conveyance (as a gift) from Thomas Wheeler to Ignatius Wheeler and Thomas Wheeler Jr. clearly states that Ignatius and Thomas Jr. were grandsons of Thomas Wheeler, and sons of Thomas Mitchell, planter, of Charles County.  It is interesting to note that this indenture does not identity the property being transferred, but simply makes reference to other documents and titles.  These tracts are identified in later deeds of conveyance fillings.  Also, note that a Joseph Mitchell witnessed this document.  Joseph Mitchell is believed to have been a brother of Thomas Mitchell Jr. and Ignatius Mitchell (per LWT of Thomas Mitchell Sr.).  It is also important to notice that the grandson, Thomas Mitchell is given the distinction on “Jr.”, a clear indication that his father was still living.

7.         21Aug1734:  Richard Wheeler 18.509 CH £109.16.1 Aug 21 1734 Appraisers: William Nelson, Edward Brawner. Creditors: Peter Wood, John Parnham. Next of kin: Thomas Wheeler, Elisabeth Browne. Executor: Thomas Mitchell.  Ditto.

8.         21Aug1734:  Laughlane McClaine/McClain 18.508 CH £24.7.0 Aug 21 1734 Appraisers: Thomas Mitchell, Joseph Clement. Creditors: John Allen, Thomas Mitchell. Next of kin: Francis Dunnington, Sr, Francis Dunnington Jr. Administratrix: Elisabeth [Dunnington] McClane.  Thomas Mitchell Jr. was both an appraiser and creditor on the estate of Laughlin McClain, who is believed to have been the husband of Elizabeth Dunnington.  Some researchers would have it that Elizabeth Dunnington had married an unknown Mr. Nobel, before having married Laughlin McClain.  The basis for that claim is unclear, but the following deed records associated with a tract called “Green Chance” are offered as ividence.  We have already presented these records previously as documentation related to Thomas Mitchell Sr.  Although William White and Mary (Wakelin) White, his wife, made over title to 100 acres of Green Chance to Elizabeth Noble, “spinster”, the inference is that Elizabeth Noble and Elizabeth Dunnington was the same person.  In fact, it seems more probable that Elizabeth Noble was a 1st cousin of Elizabeth Dunnington, namely a daughter of Susannah Brett and Mr. [Joseph?] Noble.  Elizabeth Dunnington’s parents were Margaret Brett and Francis Dunnington.  The appointed attorney, Henry Brett may have been either an uncle or 1st cousin of Elizabeth Noble.  Francis Dunnington almost certainly was an  uncle of Elizabeth Noble, and father of Elizabeth Dunnington.

a)         8Apr1719:  Charles County Land Records, Liber H#2, Page 227 8 Apr 1719; Recorded at request of Elizabeth Noble: 28 Mar 1719; William White and Mary his wife of Stafford County, Virginia, appoint Henry Brett, planter, as atty. to make over unto Elizabeth Noble, spinster, part of a tract called Green Chance; being 100 acres that Richard Wakelin left his dau. Mary Waklin; /s/ William White, Mary White (mark); wit. John Posey (mark), Francis Dunnington (mark); proved by witnesses

b)         8Apr1719:  Charles County Land Records, Liber H#2, Page 228 8 Apr 1719; Recorded at request of Elizabeth Noble: 28 Mar 1719; Indenture from William White of Stafford County, Virginia, and Mary his wife, to Elizabeth Noble; for 7 head of cattle and 8,000# tobacco; 100 acres of land, part of a tract called Green Chance, being the plantation where Richard Wakelin lived and left in his will to his dau. Mary Wakelin; /s/ William White, Mary White (mark); wit. John Posey (mark), Francis Dunnington (mark); 7 Apr Henry Brett ack. Deed.

The fact that Thomas Mitchell appears to have been so closely associated with the parties akin to Laughlin McClain almost certainly stems from the fact that they were near neighbors, and that a Dunnington-Brett kinsperson (Elizabeth Noble) owned one-half of the Green Chase tract on which Thomas Mitchell Jr. may have been living in 1734.

9.         Nov1735:  Charles County Court Records, November Court 1735 Court, Liber T#2, Page 94.  The Justices, pursuant to an Act of Assembly, do describe the following Main Roads: From Stones Mill to Geo: Elgins Run, and the Road that strikes out of that Road to Nanjemoy Church, Annapolis Road from Nanjemy Road to Thos: Mitchell’s, from Nanjemy Church to Francis Gray’s, Daniel McDaniel, Overseer. From Elgins Run the usual Road to the riverside by Simon Smith’s, from Burd’ts Creek to the riverside by Mr. John King’s, the old path that strikes out of Burdict Creek Road by Edward Shakelett’s to Saml Hanson Jr’s plantation at the riverside, John Posey, Overseer.  This road order provides a geographic reference for Thomas Mitchell’s plantation having been on the Annalpolis Road from Nanjemoy.  Such location probably would comport with being on the east side of the northeastern branch of Nanjemoy Creek.

10.       10Sep1736:  Thomas Wheeler 22.72 CH £55.0.7 Sep 10 1736 Oct 6 1736 Appraisers: William McPherson, Sr. (also William Mackpherson ), Henry Brawner. Creditors: Robert Hanson (executor of John Eburnethy). Next of kin: Ann Mitchell, Elisabeth Green. Administrator: John Wheeler.  This was the only record found for the assumed wife of Thomas Mitchell Jr., Ann Wheeler-Mitchell, daughter of Thomas Wheeler.  It would appear that Thomaw Wheeler died sometime between 10Sep and 6Oct1736.

11.       9Nov1736:  Charles County Court Records, 9 November 1736 Court, Liber T#2, Page 264 The Justices here do describe the following Main Roads, and do appoint the several persons hereafter named, overseers of sd Roads for the ensuing year: From the head of Portobacco Creek to Stones Mill, and the Road which strikes out of sd Road and leads through Cedar Point Neck to Passiman Point, and the Road from Stones Mill into the Neck Road afd by John Craxon’s, and the Road that strikes out of Nanjemy Road near the plantation of Rodham Rogers and leads by Thos: Mitchell’s to Huckleberry Branch, Mathew Barnes Jr, Overseer.  No stream by the name of Huckleberry could be located anywhere within Charls County, but this very likely was the same tract of Thomas Mitchell as listed in Item No. 9, above.

12.       20Sep1738:  Charles County Court Records, March 1738/9 Court, Liber T#2, Page 543. Sep 20, 1738. Thomas Mitchell, Ex:r of Rich’d Wheeler – D’r. To the decd’s estate then accounted for – 89.6.6. By disbursements allowed – £28.15.10. To be secured & disposed according to the decd’s Will – 60.10.8. 89.6.6. Joseph Clements & Henry Brawner, both of CC, Sureties. Signed per order Wm: Rogers Regr.  Further accounts record for the estate of Richard Wheeler.

13.       Nov1738:  Charles County Court Records, November 1738 Court, Liber T#2, Page 508. From the head of Portobacco Cr to Stones Mill, and the Road which strikes out of sd Road and leads through Caedar Point Neck to Pissimon Point, and the Road from Stones Mill into the Neck Road by John Craxson’s, and the Road that strikes out of Nanjemy Road near the plantation of Rodham Rogers and leads by Thomas Mitchell’s to Huckleberry Branch. George Godfrey, Overseer.  Same location as Item No. 11, above.

14.       Nov1738:  Charles County Court Records, November 1738 Court, Liber T#2, Page 508 From Stones Mill to George Elgins Run, and the Road that strikes out of that Road to Nanjemy Church, Annapolis Road from Nanjemy Road to Thos: Mitchell’s, from Nanjemy Church to Francis Gray’s. Benja. Davies, Overseer.  Item No’s. 13 and 14 appear to have been parts of the same road order, entered into the record during the November 1738 session.  It is difficult to interpret whether these records pertain to two separate tracts of Thomas Mitchell, or only one.  It seems possible that these may have reference two separate tracts, as it is known that Thomas Mitchell Sr. acquired Green Chase, and swapped lands at Piscataway for a tract called Lampton’s Resurvey, which is believed to have been in the vicinity of Portobacco.

15.       Nov1741:  Charles County Court Records, November 1741 Court, Liber T#2, Page 292 The Justices here do describe the following main Roads, and do appoint the several persons hereafter named overseers of sd Roads for the ensuing year according to the several precincts and divisions following, viz – From the head of Portobacco Cr to Stones Mill, and the road which strikes out of the sd road and leads through Ceder point Neck to Pissimon Point, and the road from Stones Mill into the Neck Road afd by John Craxon’s and the road that strikes out of Nanjemy Road near the plantation of Rodham Rogers and leads by Thomas Mitchell’s to the Huckleberry branch, and also the road from the Nanjemy Road afd to the Worshipful Mr. Walter Hanson’s. William Sanders, Oversee.  Dittos, Items 13 and 14, above.

16.       Nov1741:  Charles County Court Records, November 1741 Court, Liber T#2, Page 292 The Justices here do describe the following main Roads, and do appoint the several persons hereafter named overseers of sd Roads for the ensuing year according to the several precincts and divisions following, viz – From Stones Mill to George Elgins Run and the road that strikes out of that road to Nanjemy Church, Annapolis Road from Nanjemy Road to Thomas Mitchell’s from Nanjemy Church to Francis Grey’s. Joseph Doyne, overseer.  Dittos, Items 13 and 14, above.

17.       3Mar1741/2:  Wheeler, Luke, St. Mary’s Go., 30th Nov., 1741; 3rd March, 1741/2. To son Ignatius, dwell. plan., 250 A. “Maiden’s Bower”. To son William, “Planter’s Delight”, Charles County, where Thomas Mitchell now lives. To son Clement, “Planter’s Delight” where Joshua Alford lives. To son Raphell, “Planter’s Delight” where John Delozour lives. To son Bennet, any of afsd. estates if the owner should die without hrs. To wife Protheser, extx., and daus. [unnamed] personalty. Test: Richard Cooper, Mary Cooper, Ignatius Wheeler (Cooper), Elizabeth Cooper, James Thompson. 22.437.  Luke Wheeler was a son of Ignatius Wheeler, and grandson of Maj. John Wheeler.  This Will implies that Thomas Mitchell was living on a part of Planters Delight.  It is unclear whether this reference pertained to Thomas Mitchell Jr. or his son, Thomas Mitchell III.  Three different persons were cited as residing on parts of Planters Delight.  That tract was originally patented by Maj. John Wheeler for 600 acres.  On 29Jul1717 Luke Wheeler of St. Mary’s County sold 300 acres in Charles County called Indian Field, it being part of a tract called Planters Delight, formerly the place where Ignatius Wheeler had lived. DB H 2, Folio 270.  Taking that deed of conveyance in combination with the LWT of Luke Wheeler, it would appear that Luke Wheeler may have inherited the entire 600 acres of Planters Delight from his father, Ignatius Wheeler, and that he retained ownership of one-half (300 acres) of Planters Delight, part of which was occupied by Thomas Mitchell and eevised to William Wheeler (Luke’s son), probably containing 100 acres.

18.       19Jan1743:  Indenture between John Payne of Charles County in the Province of Maryland, planter, of the one part, and Ignatius Mitchell of the said County and Province, joiner, of the other part, witnesseth that the said John Payne for and in consideration of the use and labor of five slaves to him, the said John Payne and Elinor, his wife, during their or either of their natural lives, two of the aforesaid slaves now delivered to the said John Payne, and two more to be delivered into the said John Payne’s possession Christmas next, and one more to be delivered as aforesaid on 5Nov1744… and for diverse other good causes and considerations him thereunto moving, him the said John Payne, hath bargained… part of that tract of land called Raley, containing 100 acres, and part of that tract of land called Payne’s Addition containing 140 acres, together with part of that tract of land called Payne’s 2nd Addition containing 216 acres…  Wit.: Robert Hanson and William Eilbeck.  [DB Liber X 2, Folio 61]  This Ignatius Mitchell is believed to have been the son of Thomas Mitchell Jr. and Ann Wheeler. 

19.       27Jan1747:  At the request of Ignatius Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  “This Indenture made and agreed upon 6Jan1747 between Thomas Mitchell Jr. of Charles County, planter, of the one part, and Ignatius Mitchell, his brother, joiner of Charles County of the other part, consideration of 9,000 lbt, and £16, current money, sells all the land or land I myself am possessed of or that in anyways may become my right or due lying in Charles County, namely, part ot Wheeler’s Rest, part of Wheeler’s Addition, and part of Wheeler’s Delight, which my grandfather, Thomas Wheeler gave me (to wit), being half or one moiety of the land, the said Wheeler gave by deed of gift to me and my brother, Ignatius, be it more or less, and likewise one more part of land called Mitchell’s Delight containing 50 acres, and also all the right, possession, due and claim which the said Thomas Mitchell Jr. now hath…  Wit.:  William Eilbeck and Samuel Hawkins.  Charity, his wife, relinquished dower.  [Liber Z 2, Folio 205-6]  This deed of conveyance is particularly import in that it identifies the lands conveyed to Thomas Mitchell Jr. and Ignatius Mitchell by their grandfather, Thomas Wheeler on 6Jul1734 (Item No. 6, above).  From this deed we learn that Thomas Mitchell was married to a woman named Charity, and that his father (Thomas Mitchell Jr.) very likely was still living, since this Thomas Mitchell (III) was referenced as “Jr.”.

20.       20Mar1753:  At the request of Thomas Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 15Mar1753 between Leonard Mitchell and Prudence, his wife, of Charles County Province of Maryland of the one part, and Thomas Mitchell of the same County and Province, planter, of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Leonard Mitchell and Prudence, as well for and in consideration of the sum of £60 sterling current money of Great Britain to them in hand paid by the said Thomas Mitchell… sold all that part of a tract of land lying on the west side of Portobacco Creek in Charles County aforesaid, being that part of Caines Purchase which John Sanders devised to his son John Sanders and afterward descended unto Francis Ignatius Sanders, son of John Sanders, the latter, by whose death the same became the right of his sister, Prudence, now the wife of Leonard Mitchell, containing an estimation of 100 acres…  Wit.: Thomas Stone and Robert Yates.  [DB Liber A 1, Folio 90-1]  The identity of this Thomas Mitchell is uncertain at this juncture.  He would have been either Thomas Mitchell Jr. or Thomas Mitchell III.  Perhaps the chain of title on this tract called Caines Purchase will permits us to clarify the identity of this Thomas Mitchell.  Note that Leonard Mitchell was a son of Thomas Mitchell Jr., as identified by his father’s LWT below, and the husband of Prudence Sanders, daughter of John Sanders.

21.       13Jun1753:  At the request of Leonard Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 2Apr1753 between Thomas Mitchell of Charles County of the Province of Maryland, planter, of the one part, and Leonard Mitchell of the same County and Province, planter, of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Thomas Mitchell as well for and in consideration of the sum of £60 sterling, money of Great Britain to him in hand paid by the said Thomas Mitchell… sold all that part of a tract of land lying on the west side of Portobacco Creek in Charles County, aforesaid, being part of Caines Purchase which John Sanders devised to his son John Sanders and afterward descended unto Thomas Ignatius Sanders, son of John Sanders, the latter, by whose death the same became the right of his sister, Prudence, now the wife of Leonard Mitchell, and by them the said Leonard and Prudence Mitchell conveyed to the said Thomas Mitchell, containing an estimation of 100 acres…  No dower.  [DB Liber A 1, Folio 117-9]  It would appear that Thomas Mitchell sold the tract called “Caine’s Purchase” to Leonard Mitchell less than four months after having purchased it from Leonard and Prudence.  The sum paid in each transaction was £60, suggesting that this may simply have been a loan, with the property being the security.  The fact that no wife relinquished dower, and that Thomas Mitchell lacked the title of “Jr.”, suggested that this probably was Thomas Mitchell Jr., father of Leonard Mitchell, and probably widower of Ann Wheeler-Mitchell.

22.       1Jan1754:  MITCHELL, Thos, age 66, 1 Jan. 1754 [born 1688]; CHLR D#3 48:236.  This clearly was a record of Thomas Mitchell Jr., and indicates that he probably was born about 1688.  Such age would clearly support the fact that his mother was not Mary Lampton, but rather an earlier, unknown wife of Thomas Mitchell Sr. (of Nanjemoy).

23.       14Aug1754:  Charles County Land Record Book A#2, 1752-1756; Page (216). Lease. Aug 14, 1754 from John Pye of CC, to William Jenkins of CC, for and in consideration of the rents, covenants, & services herein after mentioned, the lease of a tract of land called Mattenleys Folly, bounded by the tenement of land now in possession of Thomas Mitchell, Mattawoman Cr, the tenement of land in possession of Basill Smith, containing 100 acres. The term of this lease is the natural lives of William Jenkins, and his wife, Elizabeth Jenkins. The rent for the 1st year is 800 lbs of good,sound, merchantable tobacco, and thereafter, 1000 lbs per year of good, sound, merchantable, picked and culled crop tobacco clear of cask and in 2 hogsheads, to be paid each May 1, and 2 bushels of good wheat to be paid each Sep 1, and 1 fat turkey at Christmas and 6 fat chickens at mid summer. If the rent is unpaid for 30 days, Pye may evict Jenkins. Jenkins shall plant 200 apple trees within the next 4 years. Jenkins shall, not cut down or sell any timber or wood or cut down timber or wood in a wasteful manner further than to clear the land for the plantation’s use If at any time there is more cut down for clearing the ground than is necessary for the plantation, Pye or his agents or servants may enter the premises and convert the same to such use as he or they shall think fit. Pye or his agents may cut down white oak timber in order to make plank or to convert into heading of pipe hogshead or barrel staves, or any black walnut or cherry tree or crooked ship timber which shall at any time grow on sd premises & to carry away the same, leaving sufficient timber for the use of sd plantation. It is agreed that 5 acres of the premises will be left uncut. Jenkins will assist in preserving and keeping up the Neck fence as to keep other people’s creatures out of the enclosures, Jenkins having liberty for his creatures to run therein. The premises may not be assigned to any other tenants or under tenants unless leave is first asked of Pye. Signed – John Pye. Wit – Walter Hanson, James Nevison (Nivison). Recorded Aug 18, 1754.  This Thomas Mitchell probably was Thomas Mitchell Jr., husband of Ann Wheeler.

24.       14Aug1754:  Charles County Land Record Book A#2, 1752-1756; Page (219), Lease. Aug 14, 1754 from John Pye of CC, to Thomas Mitchell of CC, for and in consideration of the rents, covenants, & services herein after mentioned, the lease of a tract of land called Sandy Leavell, bounded by the town Gutt, Pyes Addition, Mattawoman Cr, the tenement of land in possession of Basil]. Smith, containing and laid out for 100 acres. The term of this lease is the natural lives of Thomas Mitchell, and his daughter, Mary Mitchell. The rent for the 1st year is 400 lbs of good, sound, merchantable tobacco, and thereafter, 1000 lbs per year of good, sound, merchantable, picked and culled crop tobacco clear of cask and in 2 hogsheads, to be paid each May 1, and 2 bushels of good wheat to be paid each Sep 1, and 1 fat turkey at Christmas and 6 fat chickens at mid-summer. If the rent is unpaid for 30 days, Pye may evict Mitchell. Mitchell shall plant 200 apple trees within the next 4 years. Mitchell shall not cut down or sell any timber or wood or cut down timber or wood in a wasteful manner further than to clear the land for the plantation’s use. If at any time there is more cut down for clearing the ground than is necessary for the plantation, Pye or his agents or servants may enter the premises and convert the same to such use as he or they shall think fit. Pye or his agents may cut down white oak timber in order to make plank or to convert into heading of pipe hogshead or barrel staves, or any black walnut or cherry tree or crooked ship timber which shall at any time grow on sd premises & to carry away the same, leaving sufficient timber for the use of sd plantation. It is agreed that 5 acres of the premises will be left uncut. Mitchell will assist in preserving and keeping up the Neck fence as to keep other people’s creatures out of the enclosures, Mitchell having liberty for his creatures to run therein. The premises may not be assigned to any other tenants or under tenants unless leave is first asked of Pye. Signed – John Pye. Wit – Walter Hanson, James Nivison (Nivison). Recorded Aug 18, 1754.  This was almost certainly Thomas Mitchell Jr., husband of Ann Wheeler.  His daughter, Mary Mitchell, appears to have remained a spinster her entire life, and was named the sole Executrix in the LWT of Thomas Mitchell [Jr.], abstracted herein below.

25.       17Mar1759:  MITCHELL, THOMAS, Charles Co. 17 Mar, 1759; 17 Jan, 1770:  To children: Ignatius, Joseph, Notley, Leonard, Anne and Elizabeth, 1 so sterl. To son Notley Mitchell, land lying In Prince George’s Co.; tract in Charles County called “Greenchase,” To dau. Mary, all personals; also plantation whereon I live, called “Sandy Level.” Extx: Dau, Mary, Wit: Benj, Craycraft, Barnaby Cahill, John Brion [O’Bryan], 37, 589.  This is believed to have been the LWT of Thomas Mitchell Jr., husband of Ann Wheeler.  It is particularly important to note that he still retained possession of “Green Chase” (probably only 100 acres), which he conveyed to his son, Notley Mitchell.  Also, the conveyance of “Sandy Level” to his daughter, Mary Mitchell, which he had acquired from John Pye just five years ealier.  Mary Mitchell was made sole Executrix, and received the balance of her father’s estate.  It is important to note that there was no reference to the son, Thomas Mitchell III, who was married to Charity.  The whereabouts of Thomas Mitchell III may be crucial to our search for Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County, as he is reported by some researchers to either have been that same Thomas Mitchell, or a descendant of Thomas Mitchell III.  It is also important to note that this Will was note recorded until 17Jan1770, which suggests that Thomas Mitchell Jr. may not have died until shortly before that date, at which time he would have been about 80 years old.  He is fortunate that he had a daughter who would look after his needs in his dotage.

26.       5Sep1760:  At the request of John Posey the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 11Jun1760 between Thomas Mitchell of Charles County in the Province of Maryland, planter, of the one part, and John Posey of the same, planter, of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Thomas Mitchell, for and in consideration of the sum of 5,000 lbt to him in hand paid, sold all that moiety or half of that parcel or tract of land lying in Charles County called Green Chase, situate, lying and being at Nanjemoy, abutting Edward Knight… containing 200 acres… No dower relinquished.  [DB Liber G 3, Folio 453-5].  This is the same tract of land that was to be devised to Notley Mitchell, per his father’s LWT.  Apparently, Thomas Mitchell JR. changed his mind regarding the disposition of this land to his son. 

27.       6Ap1771:  Mary Mitchel 6.24 D CH £141.19.0; Apr 6 1771 Sureties: Benjamin Craycroft, Leonard Clements Distribution to siblings [equally]: Ignatius, Thomas, Benjamin Notley Mitchel, Ann Jenkins, Leonard, Elisabeth Jenkins Administrator: Benjamin Notley Mitchel.  This is a particularly important document relative to our search for the identity of Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County.  This appears to have been the estate settlement of Mary Mitchell, spinster daughter of Thomas Mitchell Jr.  In this settlement were named six of her siblings, including Thomas Mitchell.  This would seem to provide proof that Thomas Mitchell III was believed to still be living in Apr1771.  Mary Mitchell appears to have died within the year following the recording of her father’s Will.  It seems probable that Thomas Mitchell Jr. could have died anytime between Sep1760 (when he disposed of Green Chase to John Posey) and Jan1770, when his Will was recorded.  The author is inclined to believe that Thomas Mitchell Jr. probably died sometime in 1769.  The fact that Thomas Mitchell Jr. made no provision for his son, Thomas Mitchell III, may be an indication that that son had already removed himself from the Charles County area.  The last record this writer was able to locate for Thomas Mitchell III in Charles County was in the LWT of Charity Smallwood Mitchell’s father, Leadstone Smallwood, abstracted as follows:

a)         20Jan1755:  SMALLWOOD, LEADSTONE, Charles Co. 20 Jan, 1755 22 Feb 1755 To son Leadstone Smallwood., tract whereon I now dwell called “May Day, ” 200a., also part of tract called “Addition to May Day.” 11a.; also 2 Negroes, Charles and John. To son John Smallwood, tract called “Welcome,” 200 a. also 3 Negroes, Elizabeth, Peter and Negro man called monnicay, and 2 draft horses and a mare. To dau Susannah Smallwood, Negro boy Tom, cow, bed. To son William, 1 sh. To dau Charity Mitchell, 1 sh. To dau mary Godfrey, 1 sh. To dau Henniretur Nowland, 1 sh. To grand dau Elizabeth Nowland, 1 sh. All my tobacco and corn to son John Smallwood and two daus, Susannah and Elizabeth. Sons, Leadstone and John, exs. Wit: Edward Goodrick, William Smallwood, Edward Boswell. 29.306.

The fact that Thomas Mitchell III’s wife was named as a legatee in her father’s LWT in Charles County in Jan1755 may suggest that she and Thomas were still in residence in Charles County in that year, but not necessarily.  The last record that could absolutely be associated with Thomas Mitchell III in Charles County was when he conveyed his inherited property to his brother, Ignatius Mitchell, on 27Jan1747.  Having disposed of all the lands known to be in his possession in Jan1747, it is entirely possible that Thomas Mitchell III and Charity could have moved away from Charles County shortly thereafter.

Another loose end in this analysis of Thomas Mitchell Jr. is anything further pertaining to his purported son, Joseph Mitchell.  The earliest record found for this Joseph Mitchell was as a witness to the deed of conveyance from Thomas Wheeler to his grandsons: Thomas Mitchell [III] and Ignatius Mitchell on 29Jul1734.  That Joseph Mitchell is presumed to have been a younger brother of Thomas [III] and Ignatius.  Some researchers claim that this Joseph Mitchell married Elizabeth Davison [aka Davidson] in about 1745, and was purportedly born in Charles County in about 1724.  If that date of birth were correct, it seems unlikely that he would have been permitted to witness the deed of conveyance in 1734 (age 10 years).  More likely, he would have been born in about 1718 or earlier.  Joseph Mitchell’s LWT was recorded in Prince Georges County MD in 1790, abstracted as follows:

a)         13Apr1790:  PRINCE GEORGE’S COUNTY, MARYLAND WILLS; Liber T No. #1; 1790-1796; Folio 291 JOSEPH MITCHELL 12/22/1789 04/13/1790 -being week & sick .. Bequeaths to; I. Lucy Ann Mitchell –daughter -to have Negro girl “Jenny” 2. Mary Wheeler Mitchell –daughter -to have Negro girl “Anna” 3. Elizabeth Mitchell –wife -to have all the rest and remainder of the estate for her natural life and at her decease to be divided among testator’s children. -named executrix of the will Witnesses: James Bonifant, Presby Sanford ‘then came: the two above named subscribers to the will Note: the testator signed the will with his mark.

Curiously, there are two records from Hampshire County VA purportedly connected to this Joseph Mitchell, abstracted as follows:

b)         Northern Neck Warrants and Surveys Vol IV, Hampshire Co. Va {Peggy Joyner}.  JOSEPH MITCHELL of Hager’s Town in Frederick Co., Maryland, assignee of William Bills; 18 July 1765- 30 June 1767; 400 a. on drs of Lt Cacapehon ca. 2 miles from George Andrews, the Town Hill. CC-Wm Chapman & Wm Bills. Surv. Richard Rigg.

c)         Northern Neck Warrants and Surveys Vol IV, Hampshire Co. Va {Peggy Joyner}.  JOSEPH MITCHELL of Berkeley Co; 26 Nov. 1772- 8 Dec. 1772; 463 a. on drs of Gt Cacapehon; house shown on plat; adj. Henry Enoch, Senr, Jeremiah York (now Jeremiah Relfe’s). CC-Henry Enoch & Daniel Palmer. Surv. Richard Rigg.

If these land records are correctly identified with Joseph Mitchell, a presumed son of Thomas Mitchell Jr and Ann Wheeler, then they would appear to provide a tangential connection to a descendant of William Mitchell of South River.  That connection is hypothesized by the author, who has postulated that David Mitchell, great grandson of William Mitchell (William:John:John), married a woman named Mary Davidson.  The author has further postulated that Mary Davidson was descended from John Davidson and Elizabeth Marbury.  If that identification for Mary Davidson were correct, then she would have been a sister of Elizabeth Davidson, presumed wife of Joseph Mitchell.  Interestingly, the author’s research into David Mitchell and Mary Davidson traced that family to Hampshire County VA in 1778.   Keep in mind that the author had developed the Mary Davidson genealogical history totally independent from and almost two years prior to this current investigation.  Now, having found that Joseph Mitchell, a presumed son of Thomas Mitchell and Ann Wheeler had married Elizabeth Davidson, possible sister of Mary Davidson, we would seemingly have two Mitchell cousins having married sisters (daughters of John Davidson and Elizabeth Marbury), and having settled concurrently in Hampshire County VA in the 1770’s.  Whether it was the Davidson connection or the Mitchell connection that drew these two families to relocate from Prince Georges County MD to the remote area of Hampshire County VA cannot be known.  But, all things considered, it does seem probable that it was kinship that motivated that relocation.

Moreover, it is worth considering whether there may have been communications between these Mitchell cousins: David Mitchell and Joseph Mitchell; that could have led them to intermarry with two sisters.  Were they aware of their Mitchell blood ties?  At the time of these marriages, David Mitchell and Joseph Mitchell were both residing in Prince Georges County.  While the author’s connection of Mary Davidson as a daughter of John Davidson and Elizabeth Marbury is based substantially on circumstantial evidence and speculation, the kinship of Elizabeth Davidson is more definitievely established by the LWT of her brother, John Davidson, abstracted as follows:

d)         20Jan1785:  1784-1789 Prince George’s County MD Will Book Folio 206 JOHN DAVISON 01/20/1785; 03/01/1785 “being …tho weak in body, Bequeaths to. 1. Elizabeth Mitchell-sister -to take testator’s three youngest sons John, Basil, and George” and to bring them up as her own.” 2. John Davison – son { Basil Davison – son { three youngest sons George Davison – son { -testator’s horses., cattle. sheep and hogs to be sold and the money applied to, their support and testator’s household furniture to be taken care of and given to testator’s children “as they want it.” 3. Pliney Davison -son 4. Henry Davison —son -to have Negro boy Andrew -Henry Humphrey owes testator 11 pounds 5 shillings, Col. Leonard Marbury owes testator 3 pounds 12 shillings 6 pence, Robert Wade owes testator $6.00, John Smith, schoolmaster, owes testator 6 pounds —the money to be divided among testator’s sons Plney and Henry when they arrive at age. 5. Lanty Davison – son -testator’s Negroes to be kept together Until he and testator’s three youngest sons come of age and then to be divided among them 6. Joseph Mitchell Sr. -named executor of the will Witnesses Richard Edelen, Jr. Walter Edelen.  Then came: the two above named subscribers to the will Note: the testator signed the will in his own hand.

Following are a few more records of the family of Thomas Mitchell Jr.:

28.       21Mar1761:  At the request of Hugh Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 1Oct1760 between Leonard Mitchell of Charles County in the Province of Maryland, planter, of the one part, and Hugh Mitchell of the same County  and Province, Merchant, of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Leonard Mitchell for as well and in consideration of the sum of £100 sterling money to him in hand paid by the said Hugh Mitchell… sold all that part of a tract of land lying on the west side of Portobacco Creek in Charles County, aforesaid being that part of Caines Purchase which John Sanders devised to his son, John Sanders, and afterwards descended to Francis Ignatius Sanders (son of John Sanders, the latter) by whose death the same became the right of his sister, Prudence, now the wife of the said Leonard Mitchell, and by them, the said Leonard and Prudence Mitchell sold and conveyed to Thomas Mitchell, and by the said Thomas Mitchell conveyed and sold to the said Leonard Mitchell, containing an estimation of 100 acres…  No dower.  [DB Liber G 3, Folio 525-7]  Leonard Mitchell is believed to have been the son named Leonard recorded in Thomas Mitchell Jr.’s LWT.  Hugh Mitchell is believed to have been a Scottish emigrant, who entered the the Province of Maryland sometime around 1740.  He may have come to Maryland-Virginia in the employee of Glasgow merchants to act as their agents in the transport of goods from Scotland, and the export of tobacco from the colonies.  He appears in records in Spottsylvania County VA as early as 1741/2, and in a record from that County in 1747 he appears to be cited along with his brother, John Mitchell.  By the 1750’s Hugh Mitchell acquired land in the near vicinity of Portobacco, and from that date until his death in 1761 he was frequently reported as a Merchant from Portobacco, seemingly actively engaged in the slave trade.  There was nothing found in the records to suggest any kind of kinship connection between these Scottish Mitchells of the Portobacco region and the family of our target, Thomas Mitchell.

29.       12Jul1766:  At the request of Richard Bennett Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 14Jun1766 between Richard Wheeler of Charles County, planter, of the one part, and Richard Bennett Mitchell of the County aforesaid, planter, of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Richard Wheeler for and in consideration of the sum of £160 current money of Maryland in hand paid by the said Richard Bennett Mitchell… sold all that part of two tracts of land called Wheelers Rest and Wheelers Addition lying in Charles County… containing 110 acres and 17 acres, respectively, Eleanor Wheeler relinquished dower…  [DB Liber o 3, Folio 71-3]  The identity of this Richard Bennett Mitchell is a bit muddled.  The earliest known Richard Mitchell was a son of Ignatius Mitchell.  Following is an abstract of Ignatius Mitchell’s Will:

a)         21Oct1762:  MITCHELL, IGNATIUS, Charles Co. Joyner. 21 Oct. 1762 15 Jun, 1763 To son [Richard?] Bennett, lands I bought. of Jno. Payne, 304 A. To son Samuel, tract called Mitchell’s Lott. To son Ignatius, dwelling plantation. To wife Rachel, some slaves, now in possession of Benedict Wheeler. To son Richard, and daus. Winifrid, Anne [-Marie] and Henrietta, residue of estate, after wife’s thirds taken. Extx; Wife. Wit: Elizabeth Jenkins, Prudence Mitchell, William Eilbeck. 31.981. 

These children appear to have been named in order of their respective ages with Bennett having been the eldest son, whereas Richard and his three sisters appear to have been the youngest.  It appears probable that the Richard Bennett Mitchell named in the foregoing deed was the eldest son of Ignatius Mitchell, who appears to have gone by the name of Richard Bennett Mitchell.  The confusion is introduced by the fact that Richard Bennett Mitchell had a younger brother simply named Richard Mitchell.

30.       16Jun1769:  At the request of Richard Bennett Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made between Samuel Mitchell of Charles County in the Province of Maryland of the one part, and Richard Bennett Mitchell of the County and Province aforesaid of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Samuel Mitchell, as well for and in consideration for the sum of £280 current money in hand paid by the said Richard Bennett Mitchell unto the said Samuel Mitchell… sold all that tract or parcel of land called Mitchells Lott lying in the County aforesaid between Mattawoman ___ and Wheelers Addition… containing 280 acres…  [DB Liber O 3, Folio 570-2].  This again would appear to have been a record of Richard Bennett Mitchell, the eldest son of Ignatius Mitchell.

31.       16Jun1769:  At the request of Samuel Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made between Richard Bennett Mitchell of Charles County in the Province of Maryland of the one part, and Samuel Mitchell of the County and Province aforesaid of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Richard Bennett Mitchell, as well for and in consideration of the sum of £300 current money in hand paid  by the said Samuel Mitchell unto the said Richard Bennett Mitchell… sold part of them three tracts or parcels of land called Ryley, Paynes 1st and 2nd Addition lying in the County and Province aforesaid containing 304 acres… also, Elizabeth, wife of Richard Bennett Mitchell, relinquished…  [DB Liber O 3, Folio 572-5].  Ditto, Item Nos. 29 and 30, above.  This identification of Richard Bennett Mitchell is supported by the fact that he appears to be conveying the land he was bequeathed in his father’s Will.

32.       17Mar1770:  At the requested of Richard Bennett Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 14Mar1770 between Richard Tubman of Charles County, Province of Maryland of the one part, and Richard Bennett Mitchell of the County and Province aforesaid of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Richard Tubman for and in consideration of the sum of £80 current money in hand paid by the said Richard Bennett Mitchell unto the said Richard Tubman… sold all that tract or parcel of land called Nonsuch lying in the County aforesaid… Adam’s land… containing 87 acres… Ann, wife of Richard Tubman relinquished dower… [DB O 3, Folio 683-4].  This was a curious acquisition.  The reader may recall that John Lambert received two patents on 29Jul1664: one named “Hogg’s Quarter” and another named “Nonesuch”, which abutted Poynton Manor on the west side of Portobacco Creek.  Also, that Thomas Mitchell Sr. and William Dent were named co-Executors on the estate of John Lambert Jr. in Jan1693/4.  It seems possible that this tract purchased by Richard Bennett Mitchell from Richard Tubman was the same tract called “Nonesuch” granted to John Lambert.  Does the fact that Richard Bennett Mitchell purchased this tract suggest that this tract may have held some personal meaning for Richard Bennett Mitchell?  We are not certain of the identity of Thomas Mitchell Sr.’s 1st wife, the mother of Thomas Mitchell Jr.  Is it possible that she may have been a Lambert?

33.       7Oct1772:  At the request of Richard Bennett Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 22Aug1772 between William Jackson of Charles County, planter, of the one part, and Richard Bennett Mitchell of the County aforesaid, planter, of the other part, Witnesseth that the said William Jackson, for and in consideration of the sum of £90 current money in hand paid by the said Richard Bennett Mitchell … sold unto the said Richard Bennett Mitchell all them four tracts or parcels of land called Johnsons Quarry, Jacksons Trifle, part of Wheelers Delight and Wheelers Rest, all adjoining and lying in Charles County, containing 50 acres, 80 acres, and 40 acres, respectively… Ann, wife of William Jackson, relinquished dower… [DB Liber S 3, Folio 299-0].  Son of Ignatius Mitchell.

34.       12Dec1774:  At the request of Richard Bennett Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 14Nov1774 between William Jackson of Charles County, planter, of the one part, and Richard Bennett Mitchell of the County aforesaid, planter, of the other part, for and in consideration of the sun of £200 current money in hand paid by the said Richard Bennett Mitchell…sold all them three tracts or parcels of land called Lisbon, part of Wheelers Rest, and part of Wheelers Delight, lying in Charles County, adjoining the said Mitchell’s land… containing 50 acres and 50 acres, respectively… [DB Liber S 3, Folio 662-3].  Ditto.

35.       31Jul1779:  At the request of Ignatius Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  This Indenture made 25May1779 between Ignatius Wheeler of Harford County in the Province of Maryland of the one part, and Ignatius Mitchell of Charles County in the Province of Maryland of the other part, witnesseth that the said Ignatius Wheeler as well for and in consideration of the sum of £500 common passing money in hand paid by the said Ignatius Mitchell unto the said Ignatius Wheeler… all them four tracts or parcels of land called Phillips Town (100 acres), part of Wheeler’s Rest, Wheelers Addition and Wheelers Delight (200 acres), all adjoining and lying in Charles County…  Wit.” John Love and Ignatius Wheeler, Justices of Peace.  Henrietta Wheeler, wife, relinquished dower.  [DB Liber V 3, Folio 380].  The Ignatius Wheeler of Harford County was the son of Ignatius Wheeler, son of Benjamin Wheeler, son of Thomas Wheeler.  Ignatius Mitchell is believed to have been a son of Ignatius Mitchell Sr., son of Thomas Mitchell and Ann Wheeler.

36.       17Sep1781:  At the request of Richard Bennett Mitchell for following deed was recorded 23Sep1791:  THIS INDENTURE made between Ignatius Mitchell of Fayette County and State of Kentucky of the one part, and Richard Bennett Mitchell of Charles County and State of Maryland of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Ignatius Mitchell, for and in consideration of £100 of current money of Maryland to him in hand paid… all that part of four tracts or parcels of land called Wheelers Addition, Wheelers Rest, Wheelers Delight and Phillips Town, lying and being in Charles County, adjoining each other…  [DB Liber K 4, Folio 322-3]  The wording of the conveyance in this deed abstract appears to be in error.  These appear to have been the same tracts purchased by Ignatius Mitchell from Ignatius Wheeler in Item No, 35, above.  If so, then its seems more likely that Ignatius Mitchell would have been the grantor, and his brother, Richard Bennett, the grantee.  It would also appear from this record that Ignatius Mitchell Jr. had relocated to Fayette County KY.

37.       23Sep1791:  At the request of Ignatius Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE between Richard Bennett Mitchell of Charles County and State of Maryland of the one part, and Ignatius Mitchell of Fayette County and state of Kentucky of the other part, witnesseth that the said Richard Bennett Mitchell for and in consideration of the sum of £100 current money of Maryland to him in hand paid… sold unto the said Ignatius Mitchell all that piece of seven tracts or part of land called Mitchells Lott, Nonsuch, Wheelers Addition, Wheelers Rest, Wheelers Delight, Trifles Enlargement and Johnsons Quory, all lying and being in Charles County adjoining (or nearly adjoining) each other… [DB Liber K 4, Folio 321-2]  Ditto.

38.       26Sep1791:  At the request of Richard Bennett Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made between Ignatius Mitchell of the County of Fayette State of Kentucky of the one part, and Richard Bennett Mitchell of Charles County State of Maryland of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Ignatius Mitchell as well for and in consideration of the sum of £750 current money of Maryland in hand paid by the said Richard Bennett Mitchell…  sold all those nine tracts or parcels of land, to wit: Wheelers Rest, Wheelers Delight, Wheelers Addition, Nonsuch, Phillips Town, Mitchells Lott, Johnsons Quarry, Trifles Amendment and Mitchells Correction… all lying and adjoining each other within Charles County, believed to contain about 350 acres…  [DB K 4, Folio 326-7]  Ditto.

Since our principal purpose in this exercise has been to trace the ancestry of the Thomas Mitchell, who first appeared in Bedford County VA in a Road Order, along with several other important associates it might be useful to reintroduce that road order abstract at this point in our exploration: 

•          1766/11/25, Peter Finney, Thomas Low, William Mitchell, Jno Mitchell, Jno Greer Jur, William Low, William Board, Isaac Low, Thomas Elliot, Nathan Board, Gilbert Mason, James Humphries, Gabriel Choat, Moses Poor, Thomas Mitchell, James Mitchell & Thomas Elledge work on road. Bedford Co VA OB 3, 295.

The Thomas Mitchell named in this road order is believed to have originated from the Charles County Thomas Mitchell lineage.  The linkage of this Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County to the Mitchells of Charles County was in part based on the fact that this Thomas Mitchell named his only known son “Ignatius” Mitchell.  That fact alone is quite compelling, given that there are no other known instances of the given name of “Ignatius” within the Mitchells of America during colonial times, aside from the Charles County MD family.  If that were the case, then we probably should be able to pick up the trail of the Bedford County Thomas Mitchell from within the collection of data thus far compiled on the Charles County Mitchells.  Since the Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County was first recorded in 1766, and since the records thus far presented on the Mitchells of Charles County extend all the way to the death of Thomas Mitchell Jr. in about 1770 and his daughter, Mary Mitchell, in 1771, we should find buried somewhere within that material some trace evidence of the origins of Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County.  If we assume that Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County was an adult when recorded in the road order in 1766, then he would have had a birth year of sometime earlier than 1745. 

From a combination of the estate records for Thomas Mitchell Jr. and his daughter, Mary, we have compiled the following list of children presumed to have survived to adulthood in the 1754 to 1771 timeframe:

1.         Thomas Mitchell [m. Charity Smallwood], b. 1710, d. unk. after 1745

2.         John Mitchell [m. Ester or Hester lnu], b. 1713, d. 3May1733

3.         Ignatius Mitchell, [m. Rachel Lanham], b. 1718, d. 15Jun1763

4.         Joseph Mitchell [m. Elizabeth Davidson], b. 1724, d. 13 Apr 1790

5.         Benjamin Notley Mitchell [m. Tabitha Blanford], b. 1720, d. 23 Oct 1784

6.         Leonard Mitchell [Prudence Sanders], b. 1730, d. 20 Apr 1799

7.         Anne [Jenkins] Mitchell

8.         Elizabeth [Jenkins] Mitchell

9.         Mary Mitchell [died a spinster in 1771]

For what is worth, Thomas Mitchell Jr. did not name his sons, John Mitchell or Thomas Mitchell III in his estate record, whereas Mary Mitchell mentioned a brother, Thomas Mitchell, but did not mention John Mitchell or Joseph Mitchell.  The reason for the omission of John Mitchell is that he had died young (1733).  The reasons for the omission of Thomas Mitchell and Joseph Mitchell is unknown to the author, but all things considered, the foregoing is believed to have been a reliable listing of the children of Thomas Mitchell and Anne Wheeler, who survived to adulthood, and who were still living as late as 1771.  If we assume that the Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County descended from this group of male Mitchells, then we should be looking for a descendant named Thomas Mitchell, son of Thomas, Ignatius, Joseph, Benjamin Notley, or Leonard Mitchell, born before 1745.  Another possibility is that the Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County could have been Thomas Mitchell III, who married Charity Smallwood, but that Thomas Mitchell would have been almost 56 years old when recorded in the road order.  Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County is on record having been married to a woman named Eleanor Relander, with whom he had a son named Ignatius Mitchell in about 1772, at which time Thomas Mitchell III would have been almost 62 years old.  Does this possibility seem reasonable?

The author is more inclined to believe that the Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County was a descendant of one of the sons of Thomas Mitchell and Anne Wheeler.  That being the case, then we can probably eliminate Joseph and Leonard Mitchell from our search, as they would have been too young to have had children born before 1745.  This leaves us to ponder the possible offspring of Ignatius, Thomas and Benjamin Notley.  We can also probably eliminate Ignatius Mitchell from consideration since he died testate in about 1762/3.  There was no Thomas Mitchell named as a legatee in Inatius Mitchell’s LWT.  Although this is not absolute proof that Ignatius did not name a son Thomas Mitchell, it is certainly fairly strong evidence.  However, there appears to have been an estate record filing for a Thomas Mitchell in Prince Georges County, who may have been a son of Ignatius Mitchell.  If we eliminate Ignatius Mitchell from consideration, we are left with only Thomas Mitchell [III] or Benjamin Notley Mitchell.  Benjamin Notley Mitchell died testate in Prince Georges County in about Oct1784.  He did not name a Thomas Mitchell as a legatee in his Will.  Given that Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County had died in about 1777, had he been a son of Benjamin Notley Mitchell, he would not have been named a legatee in 1784.  We cannot absolutely eliminate Benjamin Notley Mitchell from our consideration, but must declare that he would have a very low probability of having been the father of Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County.

All things considered, if the Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County did descend from the Charles County Thomas Mitchell lineage, it seems highly probable that he descended from Thomas Mitchell III and Charity Smallwood.  Unfortunately, the record trail for this Thomas Mitchell is rather thin.  The records pertaining (or that could pertain) to this Thomas Mitchell that could be found are abstracted as follows:

1.         1May1734:  Wheeler, Richard, Charles County, 1st Apr., 1734; 1st May, 1734. To Kindrick Bayne, dwelling plantation and 17 A. adjoining for her use until son Richard comes to age of 18. To son Thomas, 20 A. and the mill on sd. land; Kindrick Bane to have 500 lbs. tob. yearly until afsd. Thomas arrives at age of 18. Thomas Mitchell to be paid 500 lbs. tob. yearly for education of sons Richard and Thomas till they arrive at age of 18. To dau. Elizabeth Brawner, dau. Martha, dau. Mary Madox, dau. Anne Ellder, personalty.  To sons Richard and Thomas and dau. Annastasia Kean, 1/2 of personal estate, other 1/2 to Kindrick Bane and her child. Should Ebsworth Bayne come to molest or take any part or parcel thereof, Patrick Connelly is empowered to secure the afsd. estate to sd, Kindrick and her children.  Ex.: Thomas Mitchell.  Test: William Nelson, Charity Smallwood, Ignatius Mitchell. MCW 21.57.  The Thomas Mitchell, who was named as the executor on the estate of Richard Wheeler almost certainly pertained to Thomas Mitchell Jr., husband of Anne Wheeler, and brother-in-law of Richard Wheeler.  This determination is reinforced by the fact that Richard Wheeler entrusted the guardianship of his two young sons: Richard and Thomas to his Executor, Thomas Mitchell.  Thomas Mitchell III would have been about 24 years old, and apparently unmarried.  It hardly seems reasonable that Richard Wheeler would entrust guardianship to an unmarried nephew.  It is important to note that one of the witnesses was Charity Smallwood, who is believed to have been the unmarried daughter of Leadstone Smallwood, and future wife of Thomas Mitchell III.

2.         6Jul1734:  At the request of Ignatius Mitchell and Thomas Mitchell Jr. of Charles County the following deed was recorded:  “Know all men by the presents that I Thomas Wheeler of Charles County, planter, for and in consideration of the sincere love and affection that I bear unto my two grandsons: Ignatius Mitchell and Thomas Mitchell Jr., sons of Thomas Mitchell of this County, planter, and for several other weighty reasons, me thereunto moving hath given, granted, aliened… and set over unto the said Ignatius Mitchell and Thomas Mitchell Jr. all that tract or tracts, parcel or parcels of land lying and being in Charles County… one moiety thereof to Ignatius Mitchell and one moiety to Thomas Mitchell Jr…  Wit.: Joshua Allford, Joseph Mitchell, and Martha Wheeler.” [DB Liber O-2, Folio 48]  This record has already been presented earlier in this work, but it is crucial to establishing the existence and identity of Thomas Mitchell III as a brother of Ignatius Mitchell, and as son of Thomas Mitchell Jr. and Anne Wheeler.  By referencing this Thomas Mitchell and Ignatius Mitchell as grandchildren, Thomas Wheeler has unquestionably identified the kinships of these Mitchells.  We also have Joseph Mitchell as a witness, he presumably having been a younger brother of Thomas [III] and Ignatius.

3.         1740:  “Apparently Thomas Mitchell Sr. died in 1740 as an account was filed in Prince Georges County by William Wheeler on the estate of Thomas Mitchell with value of 145-12-9, and no wife mentioned.  (Accts 19, Folio 317)…”   This is a very curious entry.  This reporting by Walter V. Ball is truly confusing.  It appears, given its context with the biography of Thomas Wheeler, suggests that Ball thought this was a record on the estate of Thomas Mitchell, who had married Ann Mitchell.  As already fairly thoroughly documented and analyzed, it seems quite certain that Thomas Mitchell, husband of Ann Wheeler, lived to a ripe old age, writing his LWT in 1759, and being recorded in 1770.  So, the question remains unanswered, who was this mysterious Thomas Mitchell of Prince Georges County MD, who presumably died around 1740.  He almost certainly was not Thomas Mitchell Jr., who married Ann Mitchell, nor was he that Thomas Mitchell’s son, who presumably married Charity Smallwood.  Was there possibly another Thomas Mitchell lurking in the background in Charles County and/or Prince Georges County during this time period, which has otherwise gone undetected?  It seems possible to the author that this Thomas Mitchell could have been a son of Ignatius Mitchell.  The author has been troubled by the fact that Ignatius Mitchell is not recorded with a son named Thomas.  This would be entirely out of the norm for these families and this period in time.  Almost without exception, the 1st or 2nd born son is named after the parternal grandfather.  All things considered, it seems possible [or probable] that this Thomas Mitchell was a son of Ignatius Mitchell.

4.         3Mar1741/2:  Wheeler, Luke, St. Mary’s Go., 30th Nov., 1741; 3rd March, 1741/2. To son Ignatius, dwell. plan., 250 A. “Maiden’s Bower”. To son William, “Planter’s Delight”, Charles County, where Thomas Mitchell now lives. To son Clement, “Planter’s Delight” where Joshua Alford lives. To son Raphell, “Planter’s Delight” where John Delozour lives. To son Bennet, any of afsd. estates if the owner should die without hrs. To wife Protheser, extx., and daus. [unnamed] personalty. Test: Richard Cooper, Mary Cooper, Ignatius Wheeler (Cooper), Elizabeth Cooper, James Thompson. 22.437.  Luke Wheeler was a son of Ignatius Wheeler, and grandson of Maj. John Wheeler.  This Will implies that Thomas Mitchell was living on a part of Planters Delight.  It is unclear whether this reference pertained to Thomas Mitchell Jr. or his son, Thomas Mitchell III.  Three different persons were cited as residing on parts of Planters Delight.  That tract was originally patented by Maj. John Wheeler for 600 acres.  On 29Jul1717 Luke Wheeler of St. Mary’s County sold 300 acres in Charles County called Indian Field, it being part of a tract called Planters Delight, formerly the place where Ignatius Wheeler had lived. DB H 2, Folio 270.  Taking that deed of conveyance in combination with the LWT of Luke Wheeler, it would appear that Luke Wheeler may have inherited the entire 600 acres of Planters Delight from his father, Ignatius Wheeler, and that he retained ownership of one-half (300 acres) of Planters Delight, part of which was occupied by Thomas Mitchell and devised to William Wheeler (Luke’s son), probably containing 100 acres.  When we investigate the Wheeler family later in this work, we will endeavor to sort out the chain of title of the lands owned by Maj. John Wheeler, and, hopefully in so doing sort out the identity of this Thomas Mitchell.  Given the date of this deed, this would have been a reference to either Thomas Mitchell Jr. or Thomas Mitchell III.

5.         27Jan1747:  At the request of Ignatius Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  “This Indenture made and agreed upon 6Jan1747 between Thomas Mitchell Jr. of Charles County, planter, of the one part, and Ignatius Mitchell, his brother, joiner of Charles County of the other part, consideration of 9,000 lbt, and £16, current money, sells all the land or land I myself am possessed of or that in anyways may become my right or due lying in Charles County, namely, part ot Wheeler’s Rest, part of Wheeler’s Addition, and part of Wheeler’s Delight, which my grandfather, Thomas Wheeler gave me (to wit), being half or one moiety of the land, the said Wheeler gave by deed of gift to me and my brother, Ignatius, be it more or less, and likewise one more part of land called Mitchell’s Delight containing 50 acres, and also all the right, possession, due and claim which the said Thomas Mitchell Jr. now hath…  Wit.:  William Eilbeck and Samuel Hawkins.  Charity, his wife, relinquished dower.  [Liber Z 2, Folio 205-6]  This deed of conveyance is particularly import in that it identifies the lands conveyed to Thomas Mitchell Jr. and Ignatius Mitchell by their grandfather, Thomas Wheeler on 6Jul1734 (Item No. 2, above).  From this deed we learn that Thomas Mitchell was married to a woman named Charity [Smallwood], and that his father (Thomas Mitchell Jr.) very likely was still living, since this Thomas Mitchell (III) was referenced as “Jr.”.  The tracts being conveyed from Thomas Mitchell Jr. to his brother, Ignatius Mitchell consisted of parts of three separate tracts called Wheeler’s Rest, Wheeler’s Addition and Wheeler’s Delight.  None of these lands were named or associated with a tract called Planters Delight, described in Item No. 4, above, wherein a Thomas Mitchell was reported to have been residing.  The identity of the Thomas Mitchell, who was residing on part of Planters Delight in Mar1741/2 is still uncertain.

6.         20Mar1753:  At the request of Thomas Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 15Mar1753 between Leonard Mitchell and Prudence, his wife, of Charles County Province of Maryland of the one part, and Thomas Mitchell of the same County and Province, planter, of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Leonard Mitchell and Prudence, as well for and in consideration of the sum of £60 sterling current money of Great Britain to them in hand paid by the said Thomas Mitchell… sold all that part of a tract of land lying on the west side of Portobacco Creek in Charles County aforesaid, being that part of Caines Purchase which John Sanders devised to his son John Sanders and afterward descended unto Francis Ignatius Sanders, son of John Sanders, the latter, by whose death the same became the right of his sister, Prudence, now the wife of Leonard Mitchell, containing an estimation of 100 acres…  Wit.: Thomas Stone and Robert Yates.  [DB Liber A 1, Folio 90-1]  The identity of this Thomas Mitchell is uncertain at this juncture.  He would have been either Thomas Mitchell Jr. or Thomas Mitchell III.  Perhaps the chain of title on this tract called Caines Purchase will permit us to clarify the identity of this Thomas Mitchell.  Note that Leonard Mitchell was a son of Thomas Mitchell Jr., as identified by his father’s LWT below, and the husband of Prudence Sanders, daughter of John Sanders.

7.         13Jun1753:  At the request of Leonard Mitchell the following deed was recorded:  THIS INDENTURE made 2Apr1753 between Thomas Mitchell of Charles County of the Province of Maryland, planter, of the one part, and Leonard Mitchell of the same County and Province, planter, of the other part, Witnesseth that the said Thomas Mitchell as well for and in consideration of the sum of £60 sterling, money of Great Britain to him in hand paid by the said Thomas Mitchell… sold all that part of a tract of land lying on the west side of Portobacco Creek in Charles County, aforesaid, being part of Caines Purchase which John Sanders devised to his son John Sanders and afterward descended unto Thomas Ignatius Sanders, son of John Sanders, the latter, by whose death the same became the right of his sister, Prudence, now the wife of Leonard Mitchell, and by them the said Leonard and Prudence Mitchell conveyed to the said Thomas Mitchell, containing an estimation of 100 acres…  No dower.  [DB Liber A 1, Folio 117-9]  It would appear that Thomas Mitchell sold the tract called “Caine’s Purchase” to Leonard Mitchell less than four months after having purchased it from Leonard and Prudence.  The sum paid in each transaction was £60, suggesting that this may simply have been a loan, with the property being the security.  The fact that no wife relinquished dower, and that Thomas Mitchell lacked the title of “Jr.”, suggests that this probably was Thomas Mitchell Jr., father of Leonard Mitchell, and probably widower of Ann Wheeler-Mitchell.

8.         14Aug1754:  Charles County Land Record Book A#2, 1752-1756; Page (216). Lease. Aug 14, 1754 from John Pye of CC, to William Jenkins of CC, for and in consideration of the rents, covenants, & services herein after mentioned, the lease of a tract of land called Mattenleys Folly, bounded by the tenement of land now in possession of Thomas Mitchell, Mattawoman Cr, the tenement of land in possession of Basill Smith, containing 100 acres. The term of this lease is the natural lives of William Jenkins, and his wife, Elizabeth Jenkins. The rent for the 1st year is 800 lbs of good, sound, merchantable tobacco, and thereafter, 1000 lbs per year of good, sound, merchantable, picked and culled crop tobacco clear of cask and in 2 hogsheads, to be paid each May 1, and 2 bushels of good wheat to be paid each Sep 1, and 1 fat turkey at Christmas and 6 fat chickens at mid summer. If the rent is unpaid for 30 days, Pye may evict Jenkins. Jenkins shall plant 200 apple trees within the next 4 years. Jenkins shall, not cut down or sell any timber or wood or cut down timber or wood in a wasteful manner further than to clear the land for the plantation’s use If at any time there is more cut down for clearing the ground than is necessary for the plantation, Pye or his agents or servants may enter the premises and convert the same to such use as he or they shall think fit. Pye or his agents may cut down white oak timber in order to make plank or to convert into heading of pipe hogshead or barrel staves, or any black walnut or cherry tree or crooked ship timber which shall at any time grow on sd premises & to carry away the same, leaving sufficient timber for the use of sd plantation. It is agreed that 5 acres of the premises will be left uncut. Jenkins will assist in preserving and keeping up the Neck fence as to keep other people’s creatures out of the enclosures, Jenkins having liberty for his creatures to run therein. The premises may not be assigned to any other tenants or under tenants unless leave is first asked of Pye. Signed – John Pye. Wit – Walter Hanson, James Nevison (Nivison). Recorded Aug 18, 1754.  This Thomas Mitchell probably was Thomas Mitchell Jr., widower of Ann Wheeler.  This probable identity is supported by the following Item No. 9, in which a deed of conveyance was recorded by Thomas Mitchell with reference to his daughter, Mary Mitchell, on a tract called Sandy Levell.  That tract was conveyed to Mary Mitchell by her father, Thomas Mitchell, in his LWT (Item No. 11, below).

9.         14Aug1754:  Charles County Land Record Book A#2, 1752-1756; Page (219), Lease. Aug 14, 1754 from John Pye of CC, to Thomas Mitchell of CC, for and in consideration of the rents, covenants, & services herein after mentioned, the lease of a tract of land called Sandy Leavell, bounded by the town Gutt, Pyes Addition, Mattawoman Cr, the tenement of land in possession of Basil]. Smith, containing and laid out for 100 acres. The term of this lease is the natural lives of Thomas Mitchell, and his daughter, Mary Mitchell. The rent for the 1st year is 400 lbs of good, sound, merchantable tobacco, and thereafter, 1000 lbs per year of good, sound, merchantable, picked and culled crop tobacco clear of cask and in 2 hogsheads, to be paid each May 1, and 2 bushels of good wheat to be paid each Sep 1, and 1 fat turkey at Christmas and 6 fat chickens at mid-summer. If the rent is unpaid for 30 days, Pye may evict Mitchell. Mitchell shall plant 200 apple trees within the next 4 years. Mitchell shall not cut down or sell any timber or wood or cut down timber or wood in a wasteful manner further than to clear the land for the plantation’s use. If at any time there is more cut down for clearing the ground than is necessary for the plantation, Pye or his agents or servants may enter the premises and convert the same to such use as he or they shall think fit. Pye or his agents may cut down white oak timber in order to make plank or to convert into heading of pipe hogshead or barrel staves, or any black walnut or cherry tree or crooked ship timber which shall at any time grow on sd premises & to carry away the same, leaving sufficient timber for the use of sd plantation. It is agreed that 5 acres of the premises will be left uncut. Mitchell will assist in preserving and keeping up the Neck fence as to keep other people’s creatures out of the enclosures, Mitchell having liberty for his creatures to run therein. The premises may not be assigned to any other tenants or under tenants unless leave is first asked of Pye. Signed – John Pye. Wit – Walter Hanson, James Nivison (Nivison). Recorded Aug 18, 1754.  This was almost certainly Thomas Mitchell Jr., husband of Ann Wheeler.  His daughter, Mary Mitchell, appears to have remained a spinster her entire life, and was named the sole Executrix in the LWT of Thomas Mitchell [Jr.], abstracted herein below.

10.       SMALLWOOD, LEADSTONE, Charles Co. 20 Jan, 1755; 22 Feb 1755 To son Leadstone Smallwood., tract whereon I now dwell called “May Day, ” 200a., also part of tract called “Addition to May Day.” 11a.; also 2 Negroes, Charles and John. To son John Smallwood, tract called “Welcome,” 200 a. also 3 Negroes, Elizabeth, Peter and Negro man called monnicay, and 2 draft horses and a mare. To dau Susannah Smallwood, Negro boy Tom, cow, bed. To son William, 1 sh. To dau Charity Mitchell, 1 sh. To dau mary Godfrey, 1 sh. To dau Henniretur Nowland, 1 sh. To grand dau Elizabeth Nowland, 1 sh. All my tobacco and corn to son John Smallwood and two daus, Susannah and Elizabeth. Sons, Leadstone and John, exs. Wit: Edward Goodrick, William Smallwood, Edward Boswell. 29.306.  This was an abstract of the LWT of Leadstone Smallwood, father of Charity Smallwood-Mitchell, presumed wife of Thomas Mitchell III.  The fact that Charity Mitchell was named as a legatee in Feb1755 is a clear indication that she was still living, but does not provide any hint of her whereabouts.  This would have been the last record found having any connection to Thomas Mitchell III since his conveyance of his inherited lands to his brother Ignatius in Jan1747.  Since that was the last record found with any absolute connection to Thomas Mitchell III in Charles County, it seems entirely possible that Thomas and Charity Mitchell may have removed from that area, possibly relocating to elsewhere in Maryland, or possibly, even to Virginia.

11.       17Mar1759:  MITCHELL, THOMAS, Charles Co. 17 Mar, 1759; 17 Jan, 1770:  To children: Ignatius, Joseph, Notley, Leonard, Anne and Elizabeth, 1 so sterl. To son Notley Mitchell, land lying In Prince George’s Co.; tract in Charles County called “Greenchase,” To dau. Mary, all personals; also plantation whereon I live, called “Sandy Level.” Extx: Dau, Mary, Wit: Benj, Craycraft, Barnaby Cahill, John Brion [O’Bryan], 37, 589.  The fact that Thomas Mitchell Jr. made no bequest to his son, Thomas Mitchell [III], might be an indication that Thomas Mitchell III had relocated outside of Charles County by Mar1759.

12.       6Ap1771:  Mary Mitchel 6.24 D CH £141.19.0; Apr 6 1771 Sureties: Benjamin Craycroft, Leonard Clements Distribution to siblings [equally]: Ignatius, Thomas, Benjamin Notley Mitchel, Ann Jenkins, Leonard, Elisabeth Jenkins Administrator: Benjamin Notley Mitchel.  The fact that Mary Mitchell made a bequest to her brother, Thomas Mitchell in Apr1771 suggests that he probably was still alive.  This fact leaves open the prospect that Thomas Mitchell III or a son named Thomas Mitchell III may have been the same person as the Thomas Mitchell on the road order in Bedford County in 1766.

From the foregoing record trail of Thomas Mitchell III, it appears that he may have sold all of his known lands in Charles County to his brother, Ignatius Mitchell, after which he fades from the records.  The last record found that does have a direct reference to this Thomas Mitchell was in the estate record of his father-in-law, Leadstone Smallwood, in which there was a bequest to Charity Mitchell, Thomas’s presumed wife in 1755.  If Thomas Mitchell III was the source of the Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County, we might expect to find some record evidence of him prior to the 1766 road order.  The most viable source for such record trail might be in the Virginia land patent records.  Following are three patent records which very likely had a connection to Thomas Mitchell III:

1.         16Aug1756:  Thomas Mitchell – 400 acres for £2; Lunenburgh Co. on both sides of Gills Creek of Meherrin River, down Bear Branch, adjacent Walton and Talbot.  Patent Book No. 34, Page 103.  Given the name, date and location of this patent when compared to our target Thomas Mitchell and the ultimate destination of Bedford County, this would appear to be a very good match.  It seems probable to the author that this patent filing in Lunenburgh County on the south side of the Meherrin [aka Roanoake River] was made by Thomas Mitchell III, son of Thomas Mitchell Jr. and Ann Wheeler.  This connection is made even stronger by the following filing by a person named Samuel Wheeler.

2.         12May1759:  Samuel Wheeler – 254 acres for£1.85; Lunenburgh County on the south side of Roanoake River, adjacent Mitchell.  Patent Book 34, Page 262.  The author could not establish the identity of this patentee, Samuel Wheeler, but given this tracts proximity to the filing by Thomas Mitchell, it seems probable that he was a close kinsman of Thomas Mitchell, very possibly a 1st cousin.

3.         23May1763:  Francis Bracey – 1000 acres for £5, Lunenburgh County on the south side of Roanoake River, down Island Creek and down the main branch, adjacent Thomas Mitchell, Bracey, Wheeler and Jefferson.  Patent Book 35, Page 142.  This filing was just three years before the road order record from Bedford County.  This record would seem to clearly establish the fact that the Thomas Mitchell tract and the Samuel Wheeler tract were in close proximity to each other along Gills Creek.

The foregoing patent records from Lunenburgh County in the middle of the 18th century place a Thomas Mitchell on the drains of Gills Creek, which is situated on the south side of the Roanoake River, immediately opposite future Bedford County.  Given this location and date, there would seem to be a very high probability that this was the same person or a descendant of the Thomas Mitchell in the road order in Bedford County in 1766.  Given the yDNA testing that appears to provide a direct linkage between Ignatius Mitchell and John Isaac Mitchell of Bedford County, it seems highly probable that Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County was directly descended from Thomas Mitchell and Ann Wheeler of Charles County MD.  Having traced the descendant records of Thomas Mitchell and Ann Wheeler, there seems to be a very high probability that Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County was either Thomas Mitchell III, or a son of Thomas Mitchell III.

Some researchers have opined that the James Mitchell, who was recorded in the same road order with Thomas Mitchell, was a son of that Thomas Mitchell.  For the reasons already presented, the author is somewhat skeptical about the Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County having been Thomas Mitchell III.  Since Thomas Mitchell III and Charity Smallwood appear to have been married sometime shortly after 1734, when Charity Smallwood witnessed the estate settlement of Richard Wheeler, it seems probable that they would have had several children before relocating out of Charles County to the Lunenburgh County VA area around 1750-5.  Very likely they would have christened there 1st born son after the father and grandfather, Thomas Mitchell.  Similarly, they may have christened their 2nd born son, James Mitchell, after Charity Smallwood’s grandfather, James Smallwood.  Consequently, there seems to be a high probility that the Thomas and James Mitchells of the 1766 road order were brothers, and the sons of Thomas Mitchell and Charity Smallwood. 

This identification of Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County having been a brother of James Mitchell, and son of Thomas Mitchell and Charity Smallwood, may never be proven, but in the author’s opinion has a higher probability than their having been father and son.  If the Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County were the son of Thomas Mitchell and Charity Smallwood, his age would be a much more reasonable fit for the marriage with Eleanor Relander, and the birth of their son, Ignatius, in about 1772.

Having completed the loop from Bedford County to Charles County and back again to Bedford County, our research seems to have fairly credibly linked Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County to Thomas Mitchell III or IV, to Thomas Mitchell Jr. and Ann Wheeler, and to Thomas Mitchell Sr. of Nanjemoy.  As for the purported connection between Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy and Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen, that would appear to still be an open question.  As for any planned or coordinated effort between this Thomas Mitchell’s move to Bedford County and that of his distant cousin, John Isaac Mitchell, that would appear to have been pure happenstance.  As will be seen through the analysis of the William Mitchell family of South River, the paths of these two blood-rated, but geographically disparate families do not appear to have much in the way of contemporaneous intersections.  So, the assertion by Sherrie Mitchell Boone or Richard Kozney that these “cousins” planned their relocations in collaboration probably is incorrect.

Having fairly thoroughly explored the ancestry of Thomas Mitchell of Bedford County, we will now turn our attention to the family of Maj. John Wheeler.  Since so much of the early history of Thomas Mitchell of Pickawaxen, and the later generations of Thomas Mitchell of Nanjemoy overlays and interconnects with the Wheeler family, a better understanding of the Wheelers will be very useful to a fuller understanding of the Mitchells.  We will begin this Wheeler family excursis with John Wheeler, the immigrant, and work forward through his descendants.

Wheeler Family of Charles County Maryland

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